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Bolt Pattern-diagram for Head Cylinder bolts 2200 (1999 Cav)


GuyWithCavalier
01-01-2012, 08:41 AM
Okay - picture this.

(1) I want to check the torque on the head cylinder bolts.

(2) I already know that the ft/lb value for the bolts is, respectively:

a) Short Bolts ......43 ft/lbs
b) Long Bolts........46 ft/lbs

(3) I also know that the recommended tightening pattern is:

a) Tighten all bolts hand-tight:

b) Tighten each bolt 1/4-turn at a time in following order (repeat):

8 4 1 5 9 (upper/back row)

7 3 2 6 10 (lower/front row)

c) ...until torque values for each bolt is met.

d) Go round once again and tighten each bolt
an additional 90 degrees (same bolt pattern).

(4) I also know the loosening pattern is:

a) Loosen each bolt 1/4-turn at a time until
they can be removed by hand.

b) Store them in a pattern to preserve the location
each bolt came from, (for return to same hole).

--------------------------------------

(5) However, I cannot find an actual diagram or pattern
that tells me which bolt-type goes in which hole,
i.e., which hole is supposed to have a long bolt, and which a short one.

This ought to be available information, in case you have no bolts,
or have not recorded which holes had which sized bolt.

(6) Also, I cannot find an actual bolt spec: measurement for length,
for the two size/types respectively, or a thread-value,
or a steel-rating (I assume normal bolts would be 10.9 ?,
and 'soft' bolts on some models which have to be replaced,
would be a different hardness...)
Thus we should have
(a) a bolt diameter size (#),
(b) a thread pitch, or coarseness value,
(c) two shaft-lengths, (long/short),
(d) a steel grade rating (and/or for some heads, a special bolt-type)

(7) Finally, I can't find detailed listings as to which 2.2/ 2200 engines
(year, model etc.) have the special (use once-only) bolts,
and which have 'regular' (re-usable) bolts.

----------------------------------

This info would be useful, because I could then replace the bolts
if I wanted to, and also check the torque without having to
disassemble the whole engine.

If I just wanted to see if the bolts had loosened, perhaps dangerously,
I could check the torque, and re-tighten them in the approved pattern.

But it would be unwise to loosen any individual bolt randomly,
or tighten randomly it for that matter,
as this might warp the aluminium cylinder-head!

This means that you can't simply take out a bolt,
to see if its a 'long one' or a 'short one', and determine the torque it needs.

Even if you could do this, you'd have to take out at least two or more bolts,
(presuming you were lucky enough to pull two different lengths),
so that you could determine what the two lengths were,
and then know what the bolt in hand needed.

All of this dangerous experimentation,
and needless disassembly could be avoided,
if we simply knew which bolts were short ones (on the block),
and which were long ones (i.e., by block position).

Then we could simply tighten each bolt according to the
standard pattern, up to its recommended torque,
then add 90 degrees, and voila!

The head would be bolted back on 'factory-tight',
and the head gasket might perhaps last another 50,000 km,
without an actual head-gasket job.

Can anyone help with a diagram, and/or some hints?

rusted and busted
01-01-2012, 02:26 PM
The long bolts go under the valve cover and the short are by the exhaust manifold (if you have a '99 the short ones are a stud with a nut. As far as I know all 2.2's have the torque limit bolts so don't worry about the bolt specs because you have to buy new hardware from a parts store.

GuyWithCavalier
01-01-2012, 09:53 PM
The long bolts go under the valve cover and the short are by the exhaust manifold (if you have a '99 the short ones are a stud with a nut. As far as I know all 2.2's have the torque limit bolts so don't worry about the bolt specs because you have to buy new hardware from a parts store.

Thanks for this info.

So according to this, one only has to buy 5 replacement bolts,
since the front ones are not bolts at all, but studs.
If this is so, it seems doubtful that the front studs/nuts are actually
"torque-limit" bolts. They would probably be ordinary steel.

Here is something I found on a Q&A site:

very vehicle uses head bolts to fasten the cylinder heads to the head gasket of its engine. In order for head bolts to work correctly, they must be torqued in a specific sequence and to their required foot-pound measurement. If head bolts are not torqued properly, they can potentially cause crucial damage within the engine. Basic Specifications



Every engine has its own, distinct specifications. The cylinder pressure that exists in the engine directly correlates to the amount of torque that's needed to hold the cylinder heads in constant contact with the engine block. The amount of torque a cylinder bolt requires for a head bolt is determined by dividing the total number of bolts by the cylinder pressure that's produced in the engine's combustion chambers. For instance, for an engine that produces 2,200 pounds of pressure with four head bolts in the engine, each bolt must be torqued at 550 foot-pounds.

If the above explanation is accurate, we can not only understand the principle behind the bolt-tightening,
but also calculate how to double-check the figures,
and even understand that one can and should "over-tighten"
in principle, to safely counter opposing forces.

The main idea then, is:

(1) Tighten them enough to counter the explosive pressure against the head.

(2) Tighten them evenly, to prevent distortion and leaks.

From this understanding, we can see that one can probably "over-tighten" a smidgen without harm (specs for bolts, threads, and casting should have safety margins),
while "under-tightening" would be disastrous,
and uneven tightening would be just as bad.

If it is indeed possible for some bolts (or nuts) to loosen from vibrations etc., then evenness of tightening (load spread) has already failed, and the motor is simply waiting for a catastrophic gasket-failure.

So, it seems advisable on this count, to tighten all four front nuts/studs to 43 ft/lbs, plus one quarter-turn at least, as per original specs. Then at least one side of the head has its torque evenly distributed and should not become warped.



---------------------

On another Q&A board, I found this post:


While removing the intake and exhaust manifolds, the studs came out.:-0
I think I have specs on how many foot pounds to tighten the nuts that
go on those studs (holding those manifolds in place).

But when I install the studs into my new heads, how tight should I tighten the studs themselves?

I figure they're probably listed in inch-pounds so
should I just kinda tighten them gently, or does the torque matter on those studs?

thanks

This user asks a good question. If studs do tend to unscrew (because of siezed nuts),
how should they be re-installed?

To get the frozen nut off, one should have other nuts handy,
so you can use two of them (and maybe a plate of sheet-metal)
as a way to grip the stud-shaft without damaging the threads.
This seems like the best practice.

Once the old nut is off (using wax, heat, or penetrating oil etc.),
you have to re-install the stud/shaft.
There should be no "torque-value" per se, as this writer thinks,
because the "torque" is set between the stud and the nut. It doesn't belong to either piece alone.

What matters is that the stud/shaft be deep enough into the cast-iron block (or aluminium head)
so that the threads can't pull out or be damaged when the nut is tightened.
A good look at the original position of the nut should indicate how far the stud must be threaded into block.
However, one should double-check the remaining height against another properly seated stud.
The thread should be oiled and/or probably sealed with some special gunk,
in case the threaded hole is all the way through.
I read about this once in another thread on doing cylinder-heads.
I'll try to find that reference.

Once the shaft is re-threaded into position
(try using the extra two lock-nuts I described above, to screw it in),
and the gasket and head are restored on the block,
you can worry about 'torque'.

I would guess that these studs would be ordinary steel,
since they are not usually replaced, but are part of the block.
Only the inside-bolts are easily removable,
and would be expected to be the special softer type.



----------------------

On the other hand, if you have already had a leak,
This suggests serious damage to the gasket.

Simply tightening down the head might be a big mistake,
because if the gasket was worn, lost material, or got damaged,
or if some foreign deposits wedged into the crack (dried soot, coolant-residue),
then maybe putting the 'right torque' on all nuts and bolts will actually bend the head around the deposit or the missing pieces, twisting its shape.

One small question remains as to your own vehicle (see other thread):

What if one of the cylinders has a lower compression because there is still an internal problem (say caused by above)?
This would suggest that its only a matter of time before a small hole gets bigger, and you are back where you were again,
only this time with a bent head (from tightening without replacing gasket).

Just my thoughts...

GuyWithCavalier
01-01-2012, 10:54 PM
... As far as I know all 2.2's have the torque limit bolts so don't worry about the bolt specs because you have to buy new hardware from a parts store.

This sadly, actually looks like a piece of dis-information.

I have now determined that there are indeed two kinds of bolts:

(1) "Torque/turn" bolts (= regular good steel bolts). These go with the instructions to tighten 'to torque' and add a 1/4 turn. These are re-usable, but should be cleaned with a threading-die, and oiled properly, then inserted apparently without teflon paste.

(2) "Torque to yield" bolts (= special soft bolts). These are meant to torque exactly, then leave alone. They are NOT re-usable, and must be replaced after removal. These must be re-purchased, and in some cases inserted using GM 'teflon-paste'.

TTY bolts:

"There is a lot of controversy about torque to yield head bolts,
also known as angle torque, torque to turn, wasted or stretch bolts. "

"When conventional bolts are tightened ...80-90% of the clamping load is lost to friction."

"...with conventional head bolts a good thread and under bolt head lubricant is still
important. Lubricants reduce the amount of friction between the fastener and the surface it
contacts while being tightened. A quality thread lubricant will convert more of the torque to
more usable clamping force instead of having it lost to friction."


Torque To Yield Headbolts (http://www.acl.co.nz/Tech/Torque%20To%20Yield%20Headbolts.pdf)

According to the Haynes Manual, (and others), a 1996 2.2L engine has ordinary bolts (type 1 above).

Similarly, the Haynes Manual for the 1995-2005 Cavalier/Sunfire
also suggests you hang onto the bolts,
cleaned to remove sealant and corrosion with a threading-die,
keep them sorted, and re-use them.
They also recommend running a threading-tap through the holes
in the block to ensure they are clean.
They stress, "to get the proper torque, the threads must be clean" (p. 2A-7).

Another good piece of advice:


"All I ever saw was grade 8 (i believe 9/16) standard thread bolts
I always clean them completely: run a tap down the threaded holes;
to clean, then blow them out" [with air]

"The only thing I do different is using Copper Anti-seize on the bolts.
I have had trouble with putting oil on the threads.
Sometimes the oil gets hot and carbonizes causing the bolts to seize.

Also, I use a bottoming tap to make sure the hole get cleaned out
all the way to the bottom. I had a heck of a time finding one
and finally special ordered it from a specialty house."
Now a new question raises its head:

Since the manual doesn't mention the fact that the whole front row are actually nuts on studs/shafts,
are there really two different length BOLTS inside the head on the back row?
I think there must be:

The three inside bolts must hold forces from pistons on either side (= one whole piston each),
while the forces on the outside edge bolts only hold a half-piston of force.

I would suggest based on logic that there ARE two different length BOLTS (in the back row alone),
the outside two (short), and the inside three (long).
The reason for the difference in both length and torque is also then apparent.

All the more reason not to mix up the bolts....

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

But this leaves us with a new problem:
Since the front row has no bolts at all,
what is the torque for the NUTS?

Again I think the answer logically, would be:

(1) Outside two nuts: 43 ft/lbs

(2) Inside three nuts: 46 ft/lbs.

Based on the same deductions posed for back row.

Since the Tightening Sequence doesn't distinguish between nuts and bolts,
I would also suggest that the same torque applies to either nuts or bolts:
The same job, and the same amount of force will be exerted, whether the fastener is a nut or bolt.
Also, this would suggest that the nuts and studs/shafts are made of the same good steel as the bolts are.

It would have been better if all the manuals and discussions were more detailed, exact, and unambiguous,
but I think they are largely relying upon a very standardized version of the job,
and expect the mechanic to see the details in the actual disassembly of the vehicle.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

For some discussion and documentation of this,
I have the following link:

http://www.mombu.com/chevrolet/chevrolet/t-s10-22l-head-bolt-preperation-11113490.html

GuyWithCavalier
01-01-2012, 11:28 PM
There is also a third-party bolt which is recommended by racers,
called an ARP bolt It is designed for re-use, and the washer reduces friction and assists in transferring the torque to the clamping job:

http://files.activeboard.com/194871?AWSAccessKeyId=1XXJBWHKN0QBQS6TGPG2&Expires=1326326400&Signature=rOuRkWdyk0jO05V5H3wN5UFOPWc%3D

Notice that in the picture the shorter bolt has suffered corrosion from leaking antifreeze,
something discussed here:

Orange Silicon and Antifreeze Leaks (http://autotrend.activeboard.com/t15238113/get-rid-of-the-torque-to-yield-head-bolts-use-arp-get-info/)

GuyWithCavalier
01-01-2012, 11:37 PM
Interestingly, Cavalier 2.2 heads seem to show bolt holes, and perhaps studs and nuts are either a novelty or only applicable to certain years and models, or else there is an option whether to use studs and nuts or bolts.

http://www.importperformanceparts.net/imagesparts/cavalier-cylhead.jpg

http://karking.net/images/s102.jpg
http://www.machineworldny.com/images/products/H4443R-1.jpg

From the photos, it looks as though all the bolts in a given row should be the same length of shaft (before the thread starts).

At the same time, the back row up inside looks slightly higher than the front row.
This would suggest the back bolts are longer than the front ones.

Another explanation for the difference in torque would be that the back row is doing the main job of holding the head on,
against the explosive force of the pistons, while the front row is more offset (not directly above the pistons).
This might be an alternate explanation for the back row (longer) needing higher torque.

In the pictures in my Haynes manual, the front row does however look like studs and nuts, as the other poster commented.
Now I will have to check my engine to find out what is on mine.

GuyWithCavalier
01-02-2012, 01:03 AM
A final note comes from a guy who also had a blown head gasket:


The exhaust Side head bolts were definitely not anywhere near torque spec when i removed the head, it only took about 1/4 turn on my 1/2" drive ratchet to get them to loosen by hand and this is the side that has the water jackets busted through completely in areas on the gasket and....

the intake side bolts (the ones under the valve cover) all took the expected amount of effort to remove about 2-3 turns before hand loosen-able so what i've read about cast iron blocks with aluminum heads having issues with metal expansion being too great on the exhaust side the cylinder head due to heat and eventually causing blown head gaskets makes sense from what happened to my engine.It looks as though it would be prudent for all owners of this engine to have the front (exhaust side) bolts checked,
as they seem prone to loosen or else aren't always properly tightened.

Tech II
01-02-2012, 12:20 PM
Sorry, but you are making a mountain out of a mole hill with this......go to a Chevy dealer( or even a large library......or if you want to work on your vehicle, get a subscription to AllData......) and ask to see a manual.....it will tell you to replace ALL THE HEAD BOLTS......it will tell you the specs and the pattern and the procedure.....then you are done....

GuyWithCavalier
01-03-2012, 05:38 AM
Sorry, but you are making a mountain out of a mole hill with this....


Whatever, if mechanics reading can't answer the questions,
or won't look up a spec, you're right - a forum is the wrong place to get accurate car advice.

Thats a shame.
I was just trying to understand the engineering behind the question,
and plodding away on my own, while good accurate advice was lacking.




..go to a Chevy dealer( or even a large library......or if you want to work on your vehicle, get a subscription to AllData......) and ask to see a manual...

Sorry, but its the Internet Age, and most people still haven't got it.

Why get up out of my chair, and especially why spend money and time,
when I can usually get instant answers on the net free?

Thats what I bought a computer for, and why I pay for internet.

The "advice" above isn't advice.
It seems to be humming and hawwing cause you don't actually have the answers handy.



..it will tell you to replace ALL THE HEAD BOLTS......it will tell you the specs and the pattern and the procedure.....then you are done....

I'm sure all GM manuals will advice replacing all the bolts - with TYY bolts,
whether the originals are TYY or not!
The reason is, the manufacturers have switched over,
and are forcing the repair industry to tag along.

Many people however, are very skeptical of this move,
and of any lasting benefit to using cheaper, 'stretched' bolts.

Both the Manufacturer and the Repair Industry benefit from this policy:

(1) Maybe the new TYY bolts go 'soggy' faster. While they may appear to keep the torque on the head longer,
they may also fail sooner over the long haul:
(a) less failure while under limited time warranty
(b) more failure later when out of warranty...

(2) Home repair / maintenance becomes more difficult and more dependent upon the manufacturers for replaced non-renewable parts, rather than re-usable ones.

(3) Repair guys have to have more expensive special 'torque' equipment and a more complex technique, preventing home-repair and forcing owner to be dependent upon repair-stations.

This however is a bad policy for car owners, who want easy and simple repairs for cars that are not new, but perfectly maintainable, if manufacturers / repair industry would stop the B.S.

This is also a bad policy for the environment, since re-useable parts that last the life-expectancy of the car are far better than parts that fail at inconvenient times and add to the land-fill problem.

In difficult circumstances (out of date car, out way location, out of supply parts), it is better than nothing to re-use parts, but if bolts are made that are non-reusable, then they are stupid and dangerous.

Money is an issue for car owners, even smaller amounts.
Why should I pay $40 for a new set of bolts when I don't need one,
and the new ones are TYY (non-reusable), while the ones that came with the car are perfectly good and easily re-used?

This is pure crap thrown in the owner's face.
Its the kind of thing that Ralph Nader and others used to punish car makers for, and rightly so.

Tech II
01-03-2012, 03:02 PM
Are you here to pontificate on your soap box, or are you here to get your car fixed? I don't have a manual, but I guess you want me to go to the library or dealership and get it for you.....you can get it on the internet, but apparently you are too cheap to pay for the info....

So if the manual says, in important BOLD letters, do not reuse bolts, use new ones, you are not going to listen.....anyone doing something like a head job, does not want to do it a second time...... have seen head jobs done, without replacing the bolts, and the jobs have come back....

Of course, this is a forum and this is just my opinion, and you can take it or leave it.......

The cost of new head bolts compared to the total of the whole job is not that significant, in comparison to doing the job all over again.....

Your vehicle is repairable....if you want to scream on your soap box, scream at manufacturers of products like cameras, tv's and other electronic products that are not repairable or recycleable and fill up our junkyards.......

GuyWithCavalier
01-04-2012, 08:45 AM
Are you here to pontificate on your soap box, or are you here to get your car fixed?

In my view, I'm here to share whatever data I have with other Cavalier owners,
and get as much data as I can from them in reciprocation,
so that we can all fix our cars without spending needless money.

As a Tech expert yourself, I'd say that doesn't necessarily
put you on my team, unless you own a cavalier,
and you are willing to share.


I don't have a manual, but I guess you want me to go to the library or dealership and get it for you.....you can get it on the internet, but apparently you are too cheap to pay for the info....
No, I don't want you to get the info for me, if it costs you money.
I'm not too cheap to pay my friend, I'm just too poor.

If you don't know the difference, I can't help you there.
I got kids, and debts, and its a daily miracle for me and God
to keep food on the table and make minimum payments to creditors.


So if the manual says, in important BOLD letters, do not reuse bolts, use new ones, you are not going to listen.....anyone doing something like a head job, does not want to do it a second time...... have seen head jobs done, without replacing the bolts, and the jobs have come back....
You're damn right I'm not going to listen,
if I can establish that the bolts now on the car are not TYY bolts,
and don't have to be replaced.
That's what I'm trying to find out right now:

When did GM start using TYY bolts,
and when did they start replacing regular bolts with TYY on cars being repaired?
That is an interesting and useful historical question,
because it might save people like me $40.



Of course, this is a forum and this is just my opinion, and you can take it or leave it.......

The cost of new head bolts compared to the total of the whole job is not that significant, in comparison to doing the job all over again.....
I appreciate your opinion, and I wish others would also offer theirs.
But since I'm not doing a head-cylinder job in the first place,
and hope to avoid one by simply checking and tightening my bolts,
I won't be doing the job twice, even if the engine blows tomorrow.


Your vehicle is repairable....if you want to scream on your soap box, scream at manufacturers of products like cameras, tv's and other electronic products that are not repairable or recycleable and fill up our junkyards.......I'm too old to scream. I have no soap-box: Cant' afford one,
or the time to stand on it.
The only reason I have spent so much time in this thread,
is so that there will be a thread to go to when others want to know stuff.

I'm obviously also against producers of modern electronics,
which are made to throw away instead of repair.
It puts all repairmen out of work, and as you say, wastes resources.
But I haven't time or money to do anything about it.

I would vote if it had any impact, for repairable machines.

I think I'm fairly aware of the things I can change,
and the things I can't change.

I think car makers suck, but then again,
I think rich people suck generally speaking, so that isn't remarkable.
I'm sure rich people think poor people suck too.
Oil and water.

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