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Old 03-26-2005, 11:45 PM   #1
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Jaguar's aluminum future

from wardsauto.com

(It mentions a 2010 XK, but this article was written before Jaguar confirmed the X150, which is the code name for the aluminum 2006 XK8)

"Jaguar Cars’ Castle Bromwich assembly plant in the U.K. is preparing its case for more aluminum vehicles, having successfully validated the concept with the now-profitable aluminum XJ.

The upfront investment is paying off, says Mark White, Jaguar senior body structures manager for Jaguar and Land Rover Vehicles for Ford Motor Co. The XJ is profitable, he says.

The next step is the business case for future aluminum monocoque Jaguars. Following the brand’s cycle plan, the next-generation S-Type would be up for consideration first, as an ’06 or ’07 model, followed by the XK around 2010.

Bromwich assembles the current S-Type and XK, but only the XJ has an aluminum body mated to a steel subframe.

Ford has invested in a dedicated aluminum pressing facility at Bromwich for the XJ. The stamping facility, adjacent to the body assembly line, can handle aluminum versions of the S-Type and XK, should the auto maker go that route in the next-generation.

“We have the ability to do all three (cars in) aluminum if the business case is there,” White says.

“We know what it costs to do it for other models. But if they don’t meet the cost target, we won’t do it,” he says, noting he will have a series of deadlines to meet over the next three years.

The technology is ever evolving, and that plays into the business case as well. “We want to develop the technology even further,” White says.

The auto maker is identifying where costs are too high and working to reduce them. The goal is to further cut weight (aluminum currently reduces weight 40%-45% over steel); develop an even more efficient aluminum body structure; and improve manufacturing, such as rationalizing some of the 17 different riveting processes.

The rivet process also can be improved from an awkward system of rivets in a long band of tape to a blow-feed operation where they are loaded into a hopper and shot out like a dart gun through an air tube to nearby rivet guns.

Piloted on the long-wheelbase XJ, the process is being validated for future use as well. Switching from a tape feed to blow feed for the rivets will save $25 per vehicle, White says.

Alcan Inc. has been a partner with Jaguar, coming up with adhesive bonding that dramatically increases stiffness, which allows for lower gauge (thinner) aluminum to be used and saving on material cost, says Mike Kelly, Alcan Automotive vice president-global program director.

Alcan also does pre-treatment and pre-lubrication work. Additionally, the aluminum producer developed the just-in-time supply route for the 125 parts it sends to Bromwhich.

Kelly explains the aluminum starts in smelters in Quebec, Canada. Facilities in Western Germany do hot-rolling, and plants in Eastern Germany produce cold-rolled aluminum.

A finishing line does the pre-treatment and pre-lubrication. There is a laser-blank cut-to-length line in the U.K. and a storage facility feeding nearby Bromwich.

In 2003, Alcan supplied Jaguar with 1 million laser blanks, Kelly says.
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Old 04-01-2005, 07:19 PM   #2
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Mark White



The long-wheelbase 2005 XJ weighs 53 pounds more than than normal XJ yet is 5 inches longer.
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Old 05-07-2005, 04:55 PM   #3
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"The complete body with paint weighs 650 pounds compared with an estimated 1,058 pounds for the same car in steel, 952 pounds for a Mercedes-Benz S-class, and 955 pounds for a 7-series BMW."

- from The Inside Guide to the all-new aluminum Jaguar XJ by Automobile Magazine

Aluminum underbody components are fastened together with aerospace-grade epoxy adhesives and some 3,200 self-piercing rivets to create the new XJ's chassis.



Jaguar uses magnesium for a cross-car beam that supports the dashboard and instrument panel. It is used with aluminum to create a lightweight steering column.

The new XJ is roughly 26 % bigger than the previous steel XJ yet the weight is kept down.

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Old 05-14-2005, 12:38 AM   #4
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Here is an article about Jaguar and aluminum

(the link no longer works so I'll post it here)

September 2003

XJ is something different: The new Jaguar sedan, with its all-aluminum monocoque construction, will provide some challenges for body shops and technicians alike.

by Paul Weissler | Service Tech

Jaguar says its 2004 XJ is the world’s first mass-produced, all-aluminum “monocoque.” But maybe you are thinking, “Hey, that’s just for the body shops to worry about.” Well, there are things for technicians to realize too. Like any monocoque, including an airplane, the body panels form an important part of its strength. That means “creative time-saving” is not a possibility, such as cutting some little access panel in an out-of-sight location, then covering up the opening with some sheet aluminum and pop rivets.

Interestingly, the XJ is not welded (well, it has a few, primarily for specific issues). It is built with 3180 self-piercing, high-strength rivets and 394 ft (120 m) of structural adhesive (a one-step epoxy). Because the rivets alone would provide a much stronger assembly than the 5000 welds typical for a car of this size, the overall result is “belt and suspenders.” However, the adhesive really silences body vibrations, and that is reason enough for its use.

An old gag refers to a vehicle “held together by its paint job,” and there is a kernel of truth in that with the XJ. The aluminum body panels use a special alloy that is “bake-hardened” in the paint oven—to 165°C (330°F)—substantially increasing their strength (particularly resistance to dings). And the epoxy cures in that same oven.

The new model is 60% torsionally stiffer than the previous XJ, but thanks to all the aluminum, the car is over 200 lb (90 kg) lighter, despite greater size. The use of magnesium—which is as strong as aluminum but 30% lighter still—for the XJ’s seat frames and cross-car beam that supports the instrument panel and steering column also contribute to mass savings.

If a glued/riveted panel has to be replaced in a body shop, Jaguar has approved a two-step epoxy that cures at ambient temperatures. Happily, the front fenders and front bumper structure are bolted on for easier repair. The front-end module is said to be able to withstand a 10-mph (16-km/h) impact without structural damage being inflicted thanks to its impact-absorbing properties between the front-end module and body shell.

Made from injection-molded plastic, the bumpers of the new XJ are designed to withstand a 5-mph (8-km/h) impact without structural damage. “Lift-off” door hinges make removal easy if collision repair is needed, reducing time and cost.

As for those few welds, the roof is welded on because it helps produce a cosmetically superior appearance at the four corners. And a few parts from outside suppliers include welds. More importantly, the 26 body electrical grounds are supplied by welded-on studs and nuts because the glue is not conductive. If one of these grounding fasteners ever breaks off or suffers irreparable damage to threads, a replacement can be welded on unless an aftermarket repair kit becomes available.

Last edited by Jaguar D-Type; 07-01-2005 at 03:56 PM.
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Old 07-01-2005, 04:00 PM   #5
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The article at the top of this thread was written last August.
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Old 11-25-2005, 04:52 PM   #6
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Jaguar Chooses Novelis as Aluminum Supplier for New XK

October 14, 2005 - Novelis Inc. announced today that it has been selected by Jaguar Cars Limited as the sole supplier of aluminum sheet for the new Jaguar XK sports car to be launched in early 2006.

The all-new XK features an advanced aluminum body structure constructed with the aid of technology from Novelis.

Each Jaguar XK will contain some 330 lbs (150 kg) of Novelis aluminum sheet, helping to deliver a vehicle with excellent stiffness and rigidity while minimizing weight. The new XK provides significant improvements in performance, dynamics, safety and fuel economy. The power-to-weight ratio of the new car is superior to its predecessor despite the addition of advanced electronics and other luxury features.

The XK program continues the close cooperation between Novelis and Jaguar, which began with development of the aluminum-bodied Jaguar XJ sedan, launched in 2002.

"We were delighted when Jaguar announced that aluminum would be part of its lightweight materials technology strategy, which will be a hallmark of Jaguar's performance cars in the future," said Brian Sturgell, president and CEO of Novelis. "We are proud to support the lightweighting strategy and to supply all of the aluminum sheet for both the XJ and now the XK."

Novelis automotive specialists worked alongside Jaguar engineers and designers to provide expertise in materials technology from initial design of the new XK, through prototype development, right up to vehicle manufacturing. High-strength aluminum sheet from Novelis will be used for the outer skin of the new car as well as complex structural parts. The company's Aluminum Vehicle Technology (AVT) will also be a feature of the production of the new XK, as it is for the XJ. The major innovation of the system is the adhesive bonding of sheet panels in combination with self-piercing rivets.

Novelis is the world's leading supplier of aluminum automotive sheet. Material for Jaguar is produced through the company's European rolling system. Hot-rolled coils from the Norf rolling complex at Neuss, Germany, and the Novelis facility in Sierre, Switzerland, are further processed at the company's specially-equipped operations in Sierre and Nachterstedt, Germany. As part of Novelis' double-sourcing strategy, the material can be processed at either of these plants, given a special heat and surface treatment and cut to the customer's required shape - be it the traditional rectangular and curved sheet or more complex laser-cut shapes. The Nachterstedt plant features a euro 15 million (US$18 million) laser blanking centre and Novelis intends to expand the Sierre plant with a similar centre by mid 2006.

Novelis also provides closed-loop recycling for Jaguar and will take the aluminum off-cuts from XK production back to its Warrington (UK) recycling centre, as it does currently for the XJ. As part of a shared drive towards sustainability by Jaguar and Novelis, the metal is recycled directly into new automotive sheet, thus saving resources and up to 95% of energy that would be required to produce primary aluminum.

Novelis, which was spun-off by Alcan on January 6, 2005, is the global leader in aluminum rolled products and aluminum can recycling. The Company has 36 operating facilities in 11 countries and more than 13,000 dedicated employees. Novelis has the unparalleled capability to provide its customers with a regional supply of high-end rolled aluminum products throughout Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Through its advanced production capabilities, the Company supplies aluminum sheet and foil to the automotive and transportation, beverage and food packaging, construction and industrial, and printing markets. For more information on Novelis, visit www.novelis.com.
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Old 12-16-2005, 04:41 PM   #7
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Jaguar 'World First' Safety Acknowledged

Press release:

The all-new Jaguar XK was awarded the Engineering and Technology Award at the prestigious Prince Michael International Road Safety Awards in London on Tuesday 6 December.

The Prince Michael International Road Safety Awards recognise outstanding innovation or achievement and each year the judges make one Technology Award for road-based or vehicle based innovation that is considered to have significant merit. This year, Jaguar has been recognised for its outstanding safety innovation in the new XK sports car. This is an all-new, industry-leading feature - the pedestrian deployable bonnet.

Bill McLundie and Jonathan Mabey, on behalf of the Jaguar XK Pedestrian Safety team, received the award at the Savoy Hotel from His Royal Highness Prince Michael of Kent.

"We are extremely proud to receive this award on behalf of all the hardworking engineering team who were involved in the Jaguar Pyrotechnic Pedestrian Deployable Bonnet and the new XK" said Jonathan Mabey after receiving the award.

Jaguar is one of the first manufacturers to meet Phase One of new European safety legislation using an active deployable bonnet system. The new standards are designed to help mitigate the severity of injuries to pedestrians in the event of a collision with a car. Legislation in the European market requires manufacturers to commit to a two-phase introduction of a range of active and passive safety improvements on all new cars to improve the protection of pedestrian in the case of an accident.

In the unfortunate event of a pedestrian impact, the deployable bonnet on the new XK automatically 'pops' up a few inches, to increase space between the engine and the bonnet. This helps to isolate the pedestrian from hard points in the engine compartment - and takes place in less than a tenth of the time it takes to blink an eye. An advanced sensing system is mounted in the front bumper to help discriminate between a pedestrian collision and any other possible front-end collisions.
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Old 01-04-2006, 03:23 PM   #8
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The following is from autofieldguide.com (12/2002):

“I didn’t want to have to scrimp on equipment or performance with the X350,” says [Mark] White. “Nor did I want to have a vehicle so unique in terms of repair procedures that it wouldn’t be possible for a customer to get it fixed at his local Jaguar dealer.” This is an obvious reference to Audi’s A8, whose aluminum spaceframe structure requires that major accident repair be handled by select Audi-authorized repair centers. The X350 engineers determined that the best way to avoid this problem, and to learn what it takes to build aluminum-intensive vehicles in higher volumes, was to rely on a stamped aluminum monocoque structure held together mainly by self-piercing rivets (SPRs). “The structure uses 114 meters of adhesives,” says White, “and 3,195 SPRs. There are 15 aluminum castings, 35 extrusions and 284 stampings in the structure, and the body is built using three framing stations.” It also has a magnesium cross-car beam behind the instrument panel, and magnesium seat frames.

White says the structure uses an inside-out build process that allows the rivet guns full access to every joint on the structure. The skin is made of 6111 bake-hardenable alloy, and the doors make use of die castings, extrusions and stampings in their structures. A bolt-on front end structure minimizes low-speed crash damage, and–along with the split rear fender–helps keep insurance costs in check. And every Jaguar dealer has been trained in the repair protocols for the X350’s unique underpinnings. “We developed the repair techniques concurrent with the design,” says White, “and tried to make certain they didn’t stray too far from what was familiar.” This is another reason why SPRs were used in the structure. “Rivets are better in terms of fatigue strength,” he says, “and far easier than spot welding in that it’s something that can be done anywhere in the world. Spot welding aluminum needs to be very precise.” It also takes a lot of energy, and the ability to correct for changing temperature and humidity.

Metal gauge ranges from 1.0 to 2.8-mm., and the rear floor pan–which encompasses the spare tire well–is 903-mm.(22.9-in.) long and has a 19-mm (4.8-in.) draw. It’s one of White’s favorite panels on the car. “We worked very hard with the material supplier and our die makers to make sure this panel didn’t crack or wrinkle,” he says. “It may seem silly, but it was important that this piece be as flawless as the rest of the vehicle. If we could do this, getting the rest right would follow.”
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Old 01-12-2006, 07:10 PM   #9
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Here is another article about Jaguar and aluminum

(It mentions a 2010 XK but this article was written before Jaguar announced the X150, the code name for the next XK).

Jaguar Ponders Aluminum Future

WardsAuto.com, Aug 9 2004

SAN FRANCISCO – Jaguar Car’s shift from steel to aluminum body panels for its highest-end luxury XJ sedan likely is the beginning of a trend toward using the material for future products.

Using aluminum for next-generation Jaguars “is not something we can confirm today, but given the fact that we spent five years researching and doing all the work on aluminum and we’re so pleased with the results we’ve got back so far, there’s a very good chance it will stay a part of our future,” Michael Mohan, chief program engineer-XJ Series, tells Ward’s at a long-wheelbase XJ drive event here.

“It’s great for fuel economy, (it provides) strength, durability and it transpires into a fantastic car.”

The British auto maker has significant capital invested in aluminum research and a devoted stamping facility at its Castle Bromwich assembly plant in the U.K. Future iterations of vehicles such as the S-Type, due as an ’06 or ’07, and the XK, due around 2010, are not out of the question for aluminum-body construction.

In the case of the XJ, aluminum has been influential in helping the auto maker continue its march to industry-topping quality levels, Mohan says. Jaguar scored No.3 among brands in the 2004 J.D. Power and Associates Initial Quality Study and XJ was the highest rated product in Jaguar’s stable.

“One of the big things gone right is fuel economy,” says Mohan. “There’s a simple reason for that: weight.”

The XJ is constructed of an aluminum monocoque on two subframes that are steel but carry aluminum-cast double-wishbone suspensions in the front and rear.

Aluminum was influential in allowing Jaguar to add the long-wheelbase XJ for ’05 with little weight penalty over the shorter version, coming in at only 53 lbs. (24 kg) heavier, or 1.3% of total vehicle weight. The long-wheelbase XJ is stretched 5 ins. (13 cm), representing a 2.5% increase in wheelbase length.
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Old 05-18-2006, 01:15 PM   #10
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Jaguar XK's chief engineer discusses the challenges, benefits of building with aluminum

By MARK RECHTIN | AUTOMOTIVE NEWS

5/17/2006

Russ Varney has worked on Jaguar coupes since 1992. But as chief program engineer on the Jaguar XK's 2007 redesign, Varney was presented with a new challenge. The 48-year-old Englishman had to develop the coupe and convertible versions in parallel. In the past, Jaguar has done the coupe first, chopped off the roof and then reinforced the convertible. And Varney had to do it in aluminum instead of steel. Varney spoke with Automotive News Staff Reporter Mark Rechtin at the XK's launch.

Is the XK's use of aluminum an advance over the XJ sedan?

The XJ was largely a steel process made in aluminum. Most of the XJ parts are stamped. It taught us how to rivet and bond. It also taught us about the problems -- the "springback" of stamped parts, where the pieces won't keep their exact shape.

The XK needed a different solution because a coupe is a more difficult package, and we were making a version without a roof. We are using more castings and extrusions, which were about 11 percent for the XJ, but about 25 percent of the XK. Castings let you put the amount of material thickness you need in the right place, and you don't need two or three different parts connected with joints, like you do with stampings.

What is special about the use of aluminum in the new XK?

The whole side sill from the A-post to the back of the car is a single extrusion. It's 8 inches tall and 8 to 10 millimeters thick. I think it is the largest automotive aluminum extrusion piece in Europe.

Castings and extrusions reduce the number of joints where metal pieces come together, and that adds strength to the body. As a result, the new convertible is as stiff as the old coupe.

Then there's the weight savings. The Mercedes SL is very capable but it weighs (4,090 pounds). The BMW 6-series convertible's body-shake performance isn't great, and it still weighs (4,200 pounds). The XK convertible comes in at (3,620 pounds), and that's a massive difference. It's two people and their luggage less weight.

[might be dry weight]

What difficulties did you encounter with aluminum?

Nobody has ever done a mass-produced aluminum convertible in monocoque (unibody) form. BMW's Z8 was a spaceframe, which isn't the same. There isn't a CAD (computer-aided design) tool to do this. We had to learn some lessons on the way.

Such as?

In creating the "torque box" section of the body-in-white, we were trying to direct crash-load transfers from the front clip to the side sill, and that makes for a lot of mass in a confined area. Because of that mass, we found out that the adhesive didn't get hot enough to cure in the paint shop. So we had to develop a different adhesive that went off at a different temperature.

What does the XK provide for the driver that the German coupes do not?

Those cars are focused on driving German roads and being competent at going 150 miles an hour. But those cars don't have a "roundness" to them. Their dynamics have all these sharp edges to them. For instance, the Audi DSG transmission's downshift will jar you to prove to you how good it is. We've rounded things off a bit.

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Old 06-03-2006, 06:53 PM   #11
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Virtual Development Yielding Real Results for Jaguar

By Alisa Priddle

WardsAuto.com, Mar 9, 2006 9:23 AM

STELLENBOSCH, South Africa - The 07 Jaguar XK coupe and convertible are all-new - right down to the way they were developed.

Much convention was thrown to the wind for the second generation that abandons the steel body of the outgoing XK8, codenamed X100, which has been in existence since 1996.

The new X150 platform switches to an all-aluminum lightweight construction, and the products officially are renamed XK.

Additionally, the order of development was reversed, with the convertible body style engineered first.

And Jaguar Cars developed the manufacturing processes simultaneously with the vehicle, in anticipation of moving assembly to a new plant.

"On this car, more than ever before, Jaguar engineers used virtual processes, building the new models in the virtual world a half-dozen times before building the first prototype," says Russ Varney, chief program engineer.

The auto maker was able to identify issues or missing parts in the virtual world, address them, and continue with the virtual build to prove out the fix.

Additionally, the car was modeled at the component level, as opposed to subassemblies or systems as was the case in the past, where modeling was used to ensure the modules interacted properly.

Zeroing in at the component level better ensures reliability. "The result was no surprises in the real build," Varney says.

About seven prototypes were built in developing the XK, compared with 100 or more prototypes required for testing in the past, he says.

And when the vehicle underwent crash tests, no changes were necessary. "Normally there would be an intrusion issue or something that needed to be addressed," Varney says. "Not this time."

Mark White, chief technical specialist-body structures, says there was, in fact, "zero intrusion."

The virtual validation allowed engineers to focus on finesse and sensory feedback (touch and feel), Varney says.

"Great cars are about (addressing) the last 1% (of detail and finesse)," he says. "Fantastic cars are the last 0.1%. We are approaching 0.1%."

The auto maker actually completed prototypes for the production model of the new XK 18 months before the Advanced Lightweight Coupe concept was prepared for the 2005 North American International Auto Show, Varney says.

The show car was a bow to pressure to exhibit something new from Jaguar, even though work was well under way on the production model.

The final production model differs little from the show car, with some changes to the fascia and a few other detail tweaks.

Jaguar also decided against the normal industry practice of designing a coupe first and essentially chopping the top for a convertible.

"We deliberately did the reverse," Varney says, "and designed the convertible first and improved on it for the coupe. As long as the convertible works, there is no downside to an even better coupe."

Both bodies were engineered at the same time and have 95% common parts.

The result is the new convertible is as stiff as the outgoing coupe, and 50% stiffer than the convertible it replaces.

Varney says his objective was to be able to put a person blindfolded in a car and have them unable to determine which body style they were in.

The aluminum body, electrical architecture and interior are all new.

Total number of parts in the body was reduced by 100, from 350 for the first generation, White says, with additional castings, extrusions and integrated stamped parts, and fewer than 3,000 joints, from about 5,000 on the old model.

Stampings on the XK, which represents next-generation Jaguar lightweight-vehicle technology, account for 76% of the parts, down from 89% on the XJ, which is first-generation technology. Additionally, the amount of castings and extrusions on the XK is double that of the older XJ, White says.

The engineering of the car was carried out simultaneously with the design of its new production facilities, in anticipation of the move from the Brown's Lane assembly plant in Coventry, U.K., to the more modern Castle Bromwich in Birmingham, about 20 miles (32 km) away.

To ensure a smooth XK launch, Varney says preparatory work at Castle Bromwich was under way before the decision to close Brown's Lane as part of Jaguar's restructuring efforts, which includes addressing manufacturing structural costs.

Essentially, Jaguar has consolidated production of its two aluminum-bodied vehicles in the same facility, creating a center of excellence.

The aluminum XJ and steel-bodied (for now) S-Type share a body shop, travel to paint, and then to a shared final trim line.

To add the XK, Jaguar gutted the conventional body shop of the outgoing XK8. The space required to build aluminum bodies is about one-third of that needed for steel bodies.

Finished aluminum XK bodies travel to the paint shop that is shared by all models, and return to the body shop where the unused two-thirds of the space now houses the trim and final assembly line.

Body and trim can co-exist side by side because there are no sparks to worry about with aluminum bodies, Varney says.

And having all the assembly in one building makes it easy to correct any problems detected. Because the XK coupe and convertible have 95% shared parts, it is easy to shift the production mix between the two body styles to meet demand.

Castle Bromwich is operating on a single shift but a second could be added if demand proves higher than anticipated.

The full benefit of transferring assembly from Brown's Lane will be realized this year and next, says Bibiana Boerio, managing director-Jaguar Cars Ltd. She says the real efficiency comes from the shared paint facilities.

The XK began production in December, and the vehicles are arriving in showrooms in the U.K. this month. They are slated to go on sale in North America mid-April.
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Old 09-25-2006, 04:17 PM   #12
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Re: Jaguar's aluminum future

i guess jag will have a new future in road racing

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbul...d.php?t=616202
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