Corolla FAQs and Information - SEARCH/READ HERE BEFORE POSTING


Brian R.
06-27-2005, 11:36 AM
2003 Toyota Corolla Specifications

Technical Articles:
http://www.corollaperformance.com/TechInfo/Index.html


Engine
The 1.8 liter engine produces 130 hp @ 6,000 rpm and 125 lb-ft of torque @ 4,200 rpm - on regular gas. The 2003 is faster than the 2002. It uses Toyota Direct Ignition (TDI) and other tricks for ultra-low-emissions status. (Direct ignition should not be confused with direct injection.)

Gas mileage: 32 city, 40 highway (5-speed); 29 city, 38 highway (automatic)

The 1ZZ-FE (engine) changes for the 2003 Corolla is primarily the larger I.D. throttle body and the switch to the plastic intake manifold shared with the Celica and MR-2 Spyder which has the shorter intake runners. If the North American market had the Direct Injection, the engine will be labeled 1ZZ-FSE, with the 'S' signifying Direct Injection.

Brakes and wheels
Front disc diameter: 10.8 inches (swept area: 157.5 square inches)

Rear drums: diameter 7.87 inches, swept area 58.4 square inches

ABS optional on most models

15" wheels now standard

Size
Wheelbase: 102.4
Overall Length: 178.3
Overall Width: 66.9
Overall Height: CE: 57.5 LE, S: 57.7
Minimum Ground Clearance: CE: 5.7 LE, S: 6.0
Coefficient of Drag: .296

Hip Room (front/rear): 51.9/46.2 inches
EPA Passenger Volume: 90.3 cubic feet
EPA Class: Compact
Maximum Trailer Weight: 1,500 lbs


2002 model year changes
Pricing for the 2002 Corolla is actually lower for popular option packages. The CE starts at $12,568, while the LE starts at $13,383, at least $2,000 less than in the past. Otherwise, the 2002 Corollas are identical to the 2001 models.

2001 model year changes
The 2001 models have better headlights (4-beam), new front and rear styling, new fabrics, and, in some models, map lights on the rear view mirror and dual rear cup-holders with a larger rear center console. The VE is gone, replaced by a sporty-looking and bare-bones S model whose price ranges from $13,000 to $17,000. Gas mileage is slightly better. An inside-trunk safety release has been added.

1999 Toyota Corolla specifications: Engine
1.8 Liter, 4-Cylinder, In-Line Twin Cam, 16-Valve EFI, aluminum alloy block and head
Bore X Stroke (in): 79.0 x 91.5
Displacement (cc): 1794
Compression Ratio 10:0:1
Timing Chain Drive
Horsepower (SAE) 120 HP @ 5600
Torque (SAE) 122 lb/ft @ 4400
Fuel System EFI
Recommended Fuel 87 Octane

Gear Ratios
Manual Transmission
1st 3.166
2nd 1.904
3rd 1.310
4th 0.885
5th 0.725
Reverse 3.250
Differential Ratio: 3.722

3-Speed Automatic (VE only)
1st - 2.810
2nd - 1.549
3rd - 1.000
Reverse - 2.296
Differential Ratio - 3.421

4-Speed Automatic
1st - 3.643
2nd - 2.008
3rd - 1.296
4th - 0.892
Reverse - 2.977
Differential Ratio - 2.655

Suspension
Four-wheel Independent MacPherson Strut suspension with front and rear stabilizer bars

Brakes
Front (in): Vented disc/10.0
Front swept area (sq. in.) 190.3
Rear (in): Drum/7.9
Rear swept area (sq. in.): 58.5
Total swept area (sq. in.): 48.8
Parking: Center hand brake
ABS: Optional

STEERING
Type: Power rack-and-pinion
Ratio: 18:1
Turns (lock to lock): 3.27
Turning circle (ft): 32.2
Wheel 4-spoke urethane (with tilt on CE/LE)

TIRES AND WHEELS
CE and VE
Wheel size (in):5.5 x 14
Type & material: Steel
Tire size: 175/65R14
Type: All-Season steel belted radial
Spare tire: Temporary

LE
Tire size: 185/65R14
Spare Type: Full size compact spare tire

SAFETY
--Dual airbags
--Available side-impact airbags
--Available child safety seat (CE,LE) - good luck getting one!
--3-point front shoulder belts with pretensioners and force limiters
--3-point rear outboard and center shoulder belts
--ALR/ELR feature on all passenger seatbelts
--Available Anti-Lock Brakes (ABS)
--Side door impact beams on all models
--Front and rear crumple zones
--5-MPH bumpers
--Daytime running lights with automatic control
--Soft upper interior

Capacities
Engine oil (qts): 3.7
Cooling system (qts):
Manual 6.1
Automatic 6.0
Fuel tank (gal): 13.2
Warranty
1 year/12,500 miles service adjustments
3 years/36,000 miles comprehensive
5 years/60,000 miles powertrain
5 years/unlimited miles corrosion perforation

Dimensions in inches
Wheelbase: 97.0
Overall length: 174.0
Overall width: 66.7
Overall height: 54.5
Tread width –
Front: 57.5
Rear: 57.1
Min. ground clearance: 4.7
Coefficient of Drag (cd): 0.31

Headroom (f/r): 39.3/36.9 Legroom (f/r): 42.5/33.2 Shoulder Room (f/r): 52.8/52.2 Hip Room (f/r): 50.5/51.2 EPA passenger volume: 88.0 cu. ft. EPA class: Compact Cargo volume (cu. ft.): 12.1 VE Curb Weight CE Curb Weight 5M 2414 5M 2426 3AT 2403 4ECT 2503


5-speed: Add 12 pounds for CE, add 45 pounds (to VE weight) for LE

Automatic: Add 100 pounds for CE (four speed instead of three speed), 122 pounds to VE weight for LE

Fuel Economy (EPA)
City / Hwy
Manual: 31/38
3-speed auto: 28/33
4-speed auto: 28/36

Model Year Wheel Bolt Patterns Lug Thread Size Offset
1989-2002 4 x 100 12 x 1.50 45
2003-2004 5 x 100 12 x 1.50 38

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 12:33 PM
STARTER CLICKS ONCE BUT DOES NOT TURN ENGINE

Q: Often my starter will just click and not turn over the engine. It will do this for a long time, but eventually it will act normally. Is this a common problem? How can I fix it?

A: Yes, it is a common problem with Toyota starters. Many times, the problem is sticking starter solenoid contacts. See the following links for descriptions on how to replace them. This is a really cheap and easy fix and should be the first thing you try after you check all the cable connections and the battery quality.

http://www.off-road.com/toyota/tech/starter/

http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/maintenance/starter/

http://www.4crawler.com/4x4/CheapTricks/Starter.shtml

http://www.autozone.com/servlet/UiBroker?ForwardPage=/az/cds/en_us/0900823d/80/13/e2/1e/0900823d8013e21e.jsp

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=166530

15 Toyota (NipponDenso now called Denso) starter-repair reference sites:

http://www.off-road.com/4x4web/toyota/tech/starter/ -
http://www.4crawler.com/4x4/CheapTricks/Starter.shtml
http://char.tuiasi.ro/vw/reality/rogerb/4x4/CheapTricks/Starter.html
http://yotarepair.com/startercontacts.html
http://www.toyotaoffroad.net/afertig/88/starterrepair.htm
http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/maintenance/starter/
http://www.yotatech.com/~corey/tech/haveblue_starter/haveblue.htm
http://www.sleeoffroad.com/technical/tz_starter_rebuild.htm
http://www.startercontacts.com/install.htm
http://www.startercontacts.com/images/OSGR%20Exploded%20view.jpg
http://www.colorado4x4.net/tech/starter_contacts/starter_contacts.html
http://www.barneymc.com/toy_root/techneek/starter.htm
http://perso.wanadoo.fr/adherence.4x4/start_bj.htm
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=166530
http://www.toyotanation.com/forum/showthread.php?threadid=27312&forumid=10
http://www.toyotanation.com/showthread.php?threadid=27312&forumid=10

Starter contact kits (8mm ID hole):

Ace Electric # S-5263 (only two contacts)
Ace Electric # S-5264 (only two contacts)
Metro # 66-82104 (only two contacts) (www.metroautoinc.com (http://www.metroautoinc.com) ,Pomona,California)
Toyota # 28226-72010/80 (battery side)(also1KZTE-2LT-1KZT)
Toyota # 28226-72080 (8808-9108)
Toyota # 28226-16130 (9108-9308)
Toyota # 28226-55050 (9308-9511)
Toyota # 28226-70040 (9308-9511)
Toyota # 28226-72040 (motor side if needed)
Toyota # 28226-72010 (8808-9511)
Toyota # 28226-74070 (9108-9511)

For others besides 22R series:

Toyota # 28226-54220 (motor side) (2LTE, 3L..LN13# IKZTE, 2L#, KZN130,LN108,112,85..4FC)
Toyota # 28226-54250 (Diesel Surf 2.4TD, contains a new end cover and gasket)
Toyota # 28226-54320 (battery side) (2LTE, 3L..LN13# IKZTE, 2L#, KZN130, LN108,112,85..4FC,3B-1HZ-BJ73-HZJ7#-1KZT-KZJ70)
Toyota # 28226-17030 (battery side) (1H#-HDJ80-HZJ80)
Toyota # 28226-56250 (battery side) (3B-1HZ-1PZ-PZJ7#)

Starter contacts only (8mm ID hole):

Ace Electric # S-5231
Ace Electric # S-5293 (crescent moon shape)
Ace Electric # S-5295 (crescent moon shape)
Metro # 66-82106 (www.metroautoinc.com (http://www.metroautoinc.com) ,Pomona,California)
Tons more at:
http://www.metroautoinc.com/PDF%20File/66-Denso%20Solenoid%20Contact.pdf
Toyota # 28226-70040
Wilson’s Electric # 45-29-652

Starter brushes:

AC Delco # D762
GP Sorensen # 255048
Standard # JX-117

Whether your starter uses two rectangular types or one rectangular and one crescent you can substitute with two squares or one square and one crescent so any of the above part #'s for those kits will be the right ones, or about half of the auto electric shops in your local yellow pages would sell aftermarket contacts for only $5 each or the pair.

Thanks to SidneyCanada for the above information


STARTER CLICKS CONTINUOUSLY BUT DOES NOT TURN ENGINE

Q: What if the starter clicks not once, but very fast and does not turn the engine over?

A:The problem you're having is not the solenoid contacts as described above. With bad solenoid contacts, there is only one click (the starter relay), not many. Your problem is insufficient current/voltage getting to the starter.

Most likely cause is a bad battery. Before you buy one, check the battery terminals - make sure they are on tight and they are clean. Check the connections on the other end of the battery cables for tightness and cleanliness also. If all looks good, replace the battery.

If the battery cable connections are bad, loosen them from the battery and clean them with baking soda/water slurry until they are bright metal, then reconnect them and tighten them snug. Coat them with petroleum jelly to prevent them from corrosion.

It it's possible something has been left on, like your headlights or dome light etc. and the battery may be drained/discharged, try charging it first or bring it in to have it tested before you buy a new one.

BLOWER MOTOR FOR HEATER OR A/C DOES NOT WORK ON ALL SPEEDS

Q: My blower motor doesn't work for the bottom three speeds. What is the problem - is it the motor or what?

A: It is most likely a bad connection or bad resistor on the resistor block that controls the current to the motor. See the discussion in the following links:

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=252829

http://www.4crawler.com/4x4/CheapTricks/Blower.shtml

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 12:43 PM
Thanks to yotarepair.com for alternative instuctional drawings:

TIMING BELT REPLACEMENT INSTRUCTIONS

Q: My engine stopper running suddenly on the highway and now it won't start. Any guesses as to what the problem is? How do I replace my timing belt? What should I replace while I'm in there to save time in the future?

A: It sounds like you may have broken your timing belt. If you can see the cam shafts by looking through the oil filler hole in the head cover, then you can use these as an indicator. If the cams don't turn when the engine is cranked, your timing belt is broken. You may have to remove the valve cover.

You can also tell if your timing belt has broken by removing the distributer cap and seeing if the rotor moves when you crank the engine. If the rotor doesn't move, then you broke the timing belt.

Here are links to instructions for replacing the timing belt in various Corolla engines:

4A-GE, 4A-F, 4A-FE, 7A-FE

http://www.autozone.com/servlet/UiBroker?ForwardPage=/az/cds/en_us/0900823d/80/16/9f/48/0900823d80169f48.jsp


Additional Comments on Replacing Timing Belts

Other than the timing belt whether or not you need more parts depends on if there are any fluid leaks inside the timing cover, the water pump may need to be replaced and there may be oil seals such as the front crankshaft seal or the camshaft seals that may be leaking and need to be replaced.

If you do it yourself, make sure you understand how to set #1 piston at TDC on compression stroke. Also, be prepared to stop and put everything back together if you find you cannot remove the crank pulley bolt. I think this is the hardest part from a strength point of view. Air gun is best way. Really long cheater bar with tool to hold the crank is also good.

Also, be careful and gentle with the new timing belt. Handle it as if it were a piece of gold foil. Don't bend it sharply, contaminate it with anything, or turn it inside out.

Don't scratch the sensor part of the crankshaft timing pulley.

Don't use the timing belt tension to tighten the mounting bolt of the camshaft timing pulley.

If there is noticeable wear or cracks on the belt face, check to see if there are nicks on the side of the idler pulley lock.

If there is wear or damage on only one side of the belt, check the belt guide and alignment of each pulley.

If there is noticable wear on the belt teeth, check the timing cover for damage, correct gasket installation, and for foreign material on the pulley teeth.

Check to make sure the idler pulley turns smoothly. If not, replace.

Clean all the pulleys and keep them clean.

If you have to turn the crankshaft, always turn it clockwise.

Make sure you have all the gaskets you need. Clean the gasket surfaces to shiny metal everywhere before you replace the gaskets. Replace the timing cover gaskets if they are at all questionable.

Make note of all the electical connections you disconnect when you disconnect them. Make sure they are all connected when you are done (DOH!).

Consider replacing the water pump simultaneously. It will be accessible when you are replacing the belt. Also, check the accessory drive belts and replace them if they are old.

Torque everything.


INTERFERENCE ENGINES
Q: What is an interference engine and is my Toyota engine an interference engine? Why should I care?

A: An interference engine is one in which the valves and pistons can touch if the cams and crank are not kept in correct timing by the timing belt or chain. Most (not all) Toyota passenger car engines are free-running (non-interference engines). This means that if your timing belt breaks, then all that will happen is your engine will not run anymore until the belt is replaced. In an interference engine, piston-to-valve contact will cause very serious damage to the engine if the timing belt breaks.

To see if your engine is an interference engine or not, look it up in the following brochure:

http://www.gates.com/downloads/download_common.cfm?file=TBR05.pdf&folder=brochure

An asterisk opposite your engine means it is an interference engine.

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 03:30 PM
SERVICE PUBLICATIONS
Q: Where can I purchase Toyota Service and Repair Manuals for my Camry?

A: Printed copies of all Toyota, Scion, and Lexus service support information can be purchased directly from the Toyota Materials Distribution Center or MDC. The MDC stocks printed versions of most Toyota service information products, including legacy model information that is not available on this site.

Note: Certain inventory items are produced in limited quantities and may not be reprinted or reissued once initial inventory is depleted.

MDC telephone operators accept Visa and MasterCard credit card orders, Monday through Friday, 8 AM to 5 PM Pacific Time.

To place orders call 1-800-622-2033

OLD AND NEW SERVICE MANUALS OF VARIOUS KINDS
http://www.factoryautomanuals.com/search.php?mode=search

VARIOUS USED MANUALS - mostly older
http://www.autobooksonline.com/

TRANSMISSION REPAIR MANUALS
Q: Where can I purchase transmission repair manuals?

A: http://www.autorepairmanuals.biz/site/573683/page/267592

RENT ONLINE ACCESS TO MANUALS HERE:
http://www.eautorepair.net/
http://www.alldata.com/products/diy/index.html

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 06:56 PM
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

Q: How can I find out what maintenance is recommended for my Corolla at 60k (or whenever)?

A: Fill out the form on the following site: http://www.edmunds.com/maintenance/MaintenanceServlet?popup=new&tid=edmunds..directoryalpha.directory..1.*

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 07:01 PM
OIL AND OIL-CHANGE INTERVAL, AND OIL FILTER BRAND RECOMMENDATIONS

Q: What is the best motor oil to use in my car and how often should I change it? What is the best brand of oil filter?

A: These questions have more answers and opinions than there are grains of sand on a beach. Read opinions at the following site and become one of the opinionated on these subjects:

http://theoildrop.server101.com/cgi/ultimatebb.cgi

As a general rule, if you want longer oil-change intervals and don't mind paying more for your oil, use an oil with a synthetic base stock such as Mobil 1, Castrol Syntec, etc. Use the oil viscocity that is recommended in your owner's manual.

OIL ANALYSIS AND OIL CHANGE INTERVAL
To determine the optimum oil change frequency for your vehicle requires that you perform several oil analysis during one oil change interval. For example, if your vehicle has 15,000 miles on it and the manufacturer recommends 7500 mile oil changes for normal service and 5000 miles for severe, perform an analysis at 18,750 miles, 20,000 miles, and 22,500 miles (if the first or second test shows a need for an oil change then stop there). Do not exceed the manufacturer's normal service interval even if the analysis shows no need for an oil change at 7500 miles. The oil change industry desperately desires that you NOT perform such an analysis. The almost certain result for most drivers will be that even at 7500 miles the oil will still be fine.

Even after your vehicle is out of warranty it is a good idea to continue to follow the manufacturer's schedule for maintenance. There are frequently special campaigns (not recalls) to fix latent defects after the warranty has expired. Lately we've seen these on some Toyota V6 engines and some Saturn engines. You want the manufacturer to have no excuse to deny coverage. Also you can sometimes get a manufacturer to share the cost of an expensive repair when something fails after the warranty has expired, but this is at their pleasure and it is best to have solid proof that you have followed the maintenance schedules.

Big oil users like bus companies and truck fleets use oil analysis to extend the life of their engines without unnecessary oil changes. The reasons are clear. These big engines can use 3-4 gallons of oil and unnecessary changes are expensive in both time and materials. In some cases they change the filters and put in additives to replace the acid neutralizers and anti-wear agents. A good analogy is swimming pool maintenance. You clean the filters, you remove the debris, you add stabilizers and disinfectants, but you rarely empty the whole pool and refill it.

Two places to get your oil analyzed are:

Lubricon Lubricant Consultants, Inc 350 E. Churchman Ave. Beech Grove, IN 46107 (317) 783-2968

Cleveland Technical Center 18419 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44112-1016 (800) 726-5400

API CERTIFICATION, PHOSPHOROUS & ZDDP
Never use a non-API certified synthetic oil (there are many of these on the market). The problem with the non-API certified synthetics is that they contain too much phosphorus (in the form of the additive ZDDP (Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphates)). The API has limited the amount of phosphorus because phosphorus shortens the life of the catalytic converter. These oils are fine for snowmobiles, motorcycles, and older cars that don't have a catalytic converter, and the extra ZDDP does provide additional wear protection.

Unfortunately, the marketers of some the non-certified oils do not explicitly and honestly state the reason for the lack of API certification. You can check the status of API certification on the API web site. Be certain to go not just by the manufacturer name but by the actual product as well. This is because a manufacturer often have both certified and non-certified products. Suffice it to say that Mobil 1, Royal Purple, Castrol, & Havoline all make synthetic oils that are API certified and that can be purchased at auto parts stores and other retail outlets. AMSOIL has one product line, XL-7500 that is API certified, but it's other lines contain too much ZDDP to be certified and should not be used in vehicles with catalytic converters.

MOTOR OIL MYTHS AND FACTS
http://www.nordicgroup.us/oil.htm

OIL CHANGE PROCEDURE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?p=3157041#post3157041

OIL FILTER STUDIES

Q: What oil filters are the best?

A: Here are studies performed on various brands of filters. Make your own judgement:

http://www.frankhunt.com/FRANK/corvette/articles/oilfilterstudy/oilfilterstudy.html

http://www.frankhunt.com/FRANK/corvette/articles/oilfilterstudy/oilfilters.html

http://www.scuderiaciriani.com/rx7/oil_filter_study/

http://www.oilfilterstudy.com/

OIL ADDITIVES

Q: What about the various oil additives?

A: Here's a discussion on the subject:
http://www.offroaders.com/tech/snake-oil.htm

In general, lubricating oil contain additive packages that have been certified to provide a minimum level of protection as specified by the specification they meet (SF or whatever). Adding an additive to the oil is something you should do sparingly.

For a discussion of additive packages, see:
http://www.dirtroadmagazine.com/oil.htm

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 07:08 PM
WHAT LUBRICANT TO USE

Q: What lubricants should I use in my '96 Corolla differential, transmission, engine, etc?

A: Look up your vehicle on the AMSOIL website and look down the list for the lubricant they recommend:

https://www.amsoil.com/scripts/runisa.dll?amsoiloaf:index

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 09:01 PM
BRAKE LININGS

Q: What are the best brake linings? Are there any things I should watch out for in changing them?

A: The Toyota OEM linings are very good and I recommend them for most uses - I use them exclusively. They are quiet, have good life, and don't trash the rotor/drum. Ceramic linings have been recommended to me, but I haven't tried them. Cheap asbestos linings generally sound like Cooter's Hell when you are stopping and should be used only if you and anyone riding in your car are deaf.

You should refinish the rotors if there are any grooves worn in the rotors or if there is any side-to-side wobble (runout). Drums always have to be refinished.

Also, be careful not to inhale brake dust from the old pads. Don't blow the dust with your lungs or compressed air to clean the brake parts. Clean the old backing plate, rotor, caliper, etc. with a spray brake cleaner. Use a drip pan to catch the run-off.

Always use new springs for the drum brakes. Use high temperature brake grease on all pivot points in drum braking systems.

Don't get any liquid on the brake linings or they will be garbage. Don't even touch the linings with your fingers.

Watch for wetness around the wheel cylinders, particularly inside behind the dust shields. The cylinders have to be honed or replaced if they leak at all.

Flush your brake system periodically to get rid of water and contaminents. These lower the boiling point of the brake fluid and can cause brake failure or pitting of the wheel cylinders.

Back off the star wheels on the bottom of the drum mechanism to allow the brake linings to clear the ridge created by drug wear. Use two screwdrivers or other bladed tools that fit in the oval opening covered by the rubber boot.

Last but not least, after you change your linings, drive your car like your grandmother for a week or two. This finish cures the brake lining material and will give you a much longer brake life.

PULSATING BRAKE PEDAL

Q:I 've noticed this problem for quite a while. The brake pedal shakes (vibrates) when braking at or above 50 mph. It happens every time i go down a long slope or on highway. The streering wheel shakes a little bit too. It does not happen below 40 mph. I change the brake pads (front) this March and it did not fix the problem. So what can be the problem? Thanks

A: Your brake rotor runout is excessive. basically they're warped

Q: Then what work needs to be done? Replace the rotors or resurface them?

A: You are correct; resurface them if there is enough meat left on them (wherever you take them to be cut will check the thickness first) or replace them with new ones. If there is plenty of pad left, just sand the pads lightly so they will seat better to the new rotor surface.

Here's an article on rotor problems:
http://www.performanceoiltechnology.com/brakingsystems.htm

How brakes work:
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/brake.htm

How disc brakes work:
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/disc-brake.htm

How drum brakes work:
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/drum-brake.htm

How anti-lock brakes work:
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/anti-lock-brake.htm

Here are general discussions on the topic:

http://www.babcox.com/editorial/ic/ic20316.htm
http://www.asbestos-institute.ca/safemanual/section5/section5d.html
http://www.mightyautoparts.com/pdf/articles/tt68.pdf
http://www.asashop.org/autoinc/nov2002/mech.cfm

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 10:02 PM
TIRE SIZE COMPENSATION CALCULATOR

Q: Please tell me how to calculate the speedometer error if I go to different than stock tire diameters.

A: Here is a calculator just for that purpose:
http://www.miata.net/garage/tirecalc.html

Brian R.
06-28-2005, 09:03 AM
ECT

Q: What does the button on my console labeled "ECT" do?

A: ECT is an abreviation for "Electronically Controlled Transmission". The button has two positions, "POWER" and "NORMAL". When switched to the "POWER" position, the ECM shifts the transmission at higher engine rpm in every gear. It also affects the function of the torque converter lock-up mechanism.

For further discussion see the following thread:

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=128958&page=1&pp=15

With regard to the stiffness of the upshifts, in all of the A140, and A54X transmissions, as the throttle angle rises, more pressure is built up. This does not change the maximum pressure exerted during the shift, or while in gear. Thus the shift stiffness is unchanged in either ECT mode.

(Thanks to Toysrme for adding the above clarification on shift stiffness.)

OVERDRIVE

Q: What is the function of the overdrive? Is it a separate unit or actually part of my transmission? What happens when I push the button on the side of my shifter and light the "O/D OFF" indicator?

A: The overdrive is the highest (lowest numerically) gear in your transmission, by definition higher geared than 1:1 or direct drive - and it is integral with your transmission. When you push the button on the shifter and light the "O/D OFF" indicator, you prevent your transmission from engaging the O/D gear and it stays in the next highest gear.

Preventing OD from engaging is useful when you are in stop and go traffic and never get above 30 mph for any length of time. Then, the only time you engage the O/D gear is when you let off the accelerator - causing the transmission to make an unnecessary upshift when you are slowing down. It is also useful to disengage the O/D when you are in hilly country or towing and find your transmission is not able to stay in the high gear. It is better to maintain the next highest gear by turning off the O/D than to have the transmission searching for the correct gear.

How an automatic transmission works:
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/automatic-transmission.htm

Brian R.
06-28-2005, 03:55 PM
TSBs: TECH SERVICE BULLETINS

Q: Where can I find Tech Service Bulletins?
A: http://www.alldata.com/tsb/Toyota/index-issue.html

http://www.edmunds.com/maintenance/MaintenanceServlet

http://www-odi.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/tsb/

http://www.infotraxx.com/?a_aid=15&a_bid=3

http://www.alldata.com/recalls/

Brian R.
06-30-2005, 01:34 AM
CHECK ENGINE LIGHT

Q: My check engine light has just come on recently. I've never seen it on until now and I don't know why. The car has 148k miles on it, what could be the problem? I have tried checking the code myself using the paperclip method that I found on this site, but could not get anything out of it. The light just stays on and does not blink once. How can I check the code? Is there a reset button or anything I can do? Any help is appreciated. TIA.

A: Your car maybe OBDII compliant ('96 and newer) which means you need a code reader. Check on the label attached to the underside of your hood. See if it says OBDII certified.

http://www.iequus.com/assets/manuals/3100E.pdf

Q: Can I purchase a reader at any autoshop? How much are they?

A: You need an adapter that is specific for Toyota. Most readers will work with the appropriate adapter. I have had trouble finding the right adapter at my local stores. I think online is the best place to buy one.

I think prices are $100 on up. One that monitors engine functions is particularly useful - feeds data into computer like notebook or hand-held pc.

If you live near an Autozone store, they will check it for free.

Brian R.
06-30-2005, 01:44 AM
OBDII DTC CODES

A primer on OBDII DTC codes:
http://www.overboost.com/story.asp?id=1286&r=1

Here are a list of generic and Toyota-specific DTC codes from http://www.iequus.com/assets/manuals/3100E.pdf

DTC Codes in BOLD have troubleshooting guide at the end of this post.

The above document also provided Manufacturer-specific DTC codes for Honda, General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler.

DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE DEFINITIONS
The following Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions lists represent the most complete information currently available. OBD II is an evolving system, and new codes and definitions will be added as the system matures. ALWAYS consult the vehicle’s service manual for code definitions not included in these lists.

The following code definition lists provide both Generic Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions and Manufacturer-Specific Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions for the following vehicles:

• OBD II Powertrain “GENERIC” (P0XXX) Diagnostic Trouble Codes. OBD II Generic Diagnostic Trouble Codes and their definitions apply to all makes and models of import and domestic vehicles that are “OBD II COMPLIANT”.

• OBD II Powertrain “MANUFACTURER SPECIFIC” (P1XXX) Diagnostic Trouble Codes. OBD II Manufacturer-Specific Diagnostic Trouble Codes and their definitions apply only to vehicles produced by the specific manufacturer (Ford, GM, Toyota etc.).

GENERIC OBD II CODE DEFINITIONS
P0010 "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Circuit (Bank 1)
P0011 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 1)
P0012 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 1)
P0013 "B" Camshaft Position - Actuator Circuit (Bank 1)
P0014 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 1)
P0015 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 1)
P0020 "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Circuit (Bank 2)
P0021 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 2)
P0022 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 2)
P0023 "B" Camshaft Position - Actuator Circuit (Bank 2)
P0024 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 2)
P0025 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 2)
P0030 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0031 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0032 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0033 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit
P0034 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit Low
P0035 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit High
P0036 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0037 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0038 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0042 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0043 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0044 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0050 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0051 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0052 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0056 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0057 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0058 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0062 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0063 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0064 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0065 Air Assisted Injector Control Range/Performance
P0066 Air Assisted Injector Control Circuit or Circuit Low
P0067 Air Assisted Injector Control Circuit High
P0070 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0071 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Range/Performance
P0072 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0073 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit High Input
P0074 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0075 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 1)
P0076 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0077 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0078 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 1)
P0079 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0080 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0081 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 2)
P0082 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0083 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 2)
P0084 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 2)
P0085 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0086 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 2)

P0100 Mass or Volume Air Flow Circuit Malfunction
P0101 Mass or Volume Circuit Range Performance Problem
P0102 Mass or Volume Circuit Low Input
P0103 Mass or Volume Circuit High Input
P0104 Mass or Volume Circuit Intermittent
P0105 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Malfunction
P0106 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0107 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Low Input
P0108 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit High Input
P0109 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Intermittent
P0110 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Malfunction
P0111 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0112 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Low Input
P0113 Intake Air Temperature Circuit High Input
P0114 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Intermittent
P0115 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Malfunction
P0116 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0117 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Low Input
P0118 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit High Input
P0119 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Intermittent
P0120 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Malfunction
P0121 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0122 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Low Input
P0123 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit High Input
P0124 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Intermittent
P0125 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Closed Loop Fuel Control
P0126 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Stable Operation
P0127 Intake Air Temperature Too High
P0128 Coolant Thermostat (Coolant Temperature Below Thermostat Regulating Temperature)
P0130 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0131 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0132 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0133 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0134 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0135 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0136 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0137 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0138 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0139 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0140 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0141 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0142 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0143 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0144 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0145 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0146 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0147 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0148 Fuel Delivery Error
P0149 Fuel Timing Error
P0150 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0151 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0152 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0153 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0154 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0155 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0156 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0157 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0158 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0159 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0160 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0161 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0162 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0163 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0164 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0165 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0166 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0167 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0168 Fuel Temperature Too High
P0169 Incorrect Fuel Composition
P0170 Fuel Trim Malfunction (Bank 1)
P0171 System too Lean (Bank 1)
P0172 System too Rich (Bank 1)
P0173 Fuel Trim Malfunction (Bank 2)
P0174 System too Lean (Bank 2)
P0175 System too Rich (Bank 2)
P0176 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0177 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0178 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0179 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit High Input
P0180 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Malfunction
P0181 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0182 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Low Input
P0183 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit High Input
P0184 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Intermittent
P0185 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Malfunction
P0186 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0187 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Low Input
P0188 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit High Input
P0189 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Intermittent
P0190 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0191 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0192 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0193 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0194 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0195 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Malfunction
P0196 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Range/Performance
P0197 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Low
P0198 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor High
P0199 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Intermittent

P0200 Injector Circuit Malfunction
P0201 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 1
P0202 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 2
P0203 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 3
P0204 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 4
P0205 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 5
P0206 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 6
P0207 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 7
P0208 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 8
P0209 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 9
P0210 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 10
P0211 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 11
P0212 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 12
P0213 Cold Start Injector 1 Malfunction
P0214 Cold Start Injector 2 Malfunction
P0215 Engine Shutoff Solenoid Malfunction
P0216 Injection Timing Control Circuit Malfunction
P0217 Engine Overtemp Condition
P0218 Transmission Over Temperature Condition
P0219 Engine Overspeed Condition
P0220 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Malfunction
P0221 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0222 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Low Input
P0223 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit High Input
P0224 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Intermittent
P0225 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Malfunction
P0226 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0227 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Low Input
P0228 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit High Input
P0229 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Intermittent
P0230 Fuel Pump Primary Circuit Malfunction
P0231 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit Low
P0232 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit High
P0233 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit Intermittent
P0234 Engine Overboost Condition
P0235 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit Malfunction
P0236 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0237 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit Low
P0238 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit High
P0239 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit Malfunction
P0240 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0241 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit Low
P0242 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit High
P0243 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A Malfunction
P0244 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A Range/Performance
P0245 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A Low
P0246 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A High
P0247 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B Malfunction
P0248 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B Range/Performance
P0249 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B Low
P0250 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B High
P0251 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Malfunction
P0252 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Range/Performance
P0253 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Low
P0254 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam High
P0255 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Intermitted
P0256 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Malfunction
P0257 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Range/Performance
P0258 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Low
P0259 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam High
P0260 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Intermitted
P0261 Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit Low
P0262 Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit High
P0263 Cylinder 1 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0264 Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit Low
P0265 Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit High
P0266 Cylinder 2 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0267 Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit Low
P0268 Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit High
P0269 Cylinder 3 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0270 Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit Low
P0271 Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit High
P0272 Cylinder 4 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0273 Cylinder 5 Injector Circuit Low
P0274 Cylinder 5 Injector Circuit High
P0275 Cylinder 5 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0276 Cylinder 6 Injector Circuit Low
P0277 Cylinder 6 Injector Circuit High
P0278 Cylinder 6 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0279 Cylinder 7 Injector Circuit Low
P0280 Cylinder 7 Injector Circuit High
P0281 Cylinder 7 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0282 Cylinder 8 Injector Circuit Low
P0283 Cylinder 8 Injector Circuit High
P0284 Cylinder 8 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0285 Cylinder 9 Injector Circuit Low
P0286 Cylinder 9 Injector Circuit High
P0287 Cylinder 9 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0288 Cylinder 10 Injector Circuit Low
P0289 Cylinder 10 Injector Circuit High
P0290 Cylinder 10 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0291 Cylinder 11 Injector Circuit Low
P0292 Cylinder 11 Injector Circuit High
P0293 Cylinder 11 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0294 Cylinder 12 Injector Circuit Low
P0295 Cylinder 12 Injector Circuit High
P0296 Cylinder 12 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0298 Engine Oil Over Temperature

P0300 Random/Multiple Cylinder Misfire Detected
P0301 Cylinder 1 Misfire Detected
P0302 Cylinder 2 Misfire Detected
P0303 Cylinder 3 Misfire Detected
P0304 Cylinder 4 Misfire Detected
P0305 Cylinder 5 Misfire Detected
P0306 Cylinder 6 Misfire Detected
P0307 Cylinder 7 Misfire Detected
P0308 Cylinder 8 Misfire Detected
P0309 Cylinder 9 Misfire Detected
P0310 Cylinder 10 Misfire Detected
P0311 Cylinder 11 Misfire Detected
P0312 Cylinder 12 Misfire Detected
P0313 Misfire Detected with Low Fuel
P0314 Single Cylinder Misfire (Cylinder not specified)
P0320 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Malfunction
P0321 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Range/Performance
P0322 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit No Signal
P0323 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Intermittent
P0324 Knock Control System Error
P0325 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0326 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0327 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Low Input (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0328 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit High Input (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0329 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Intermittent (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0330 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2)
P0331 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0332 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)
P0333 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit High Input (Bank 2)
P0334 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)
P0335 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Malfunction
P0336 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0337 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Low Input
P0338 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit High Input
P0339 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Intermittent
P0340 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0341 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0342 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0343 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit High Input
P0344 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0345 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit (Bank 2)
P0346 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0347 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)
P0348 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit High Input (Bank 2)
P0349 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)
P0350 Ignition Coil Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0351 Ignition Coil A Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0352 Ignition Coil B Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0353 Ignition Coil C Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0354 Ignition Coil D Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0355 Ignition Coil E Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0356 Ignition Coil F Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0357 Ignition Coil G Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0358 Ignition Coil H Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0359 Ignition Coil I Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0360 Ignition Coil J Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0361 Ignition Coil K Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0362 Ignition Coil L Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0365 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit (Bank 1)
P0366 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0367 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Low Input (Bank 1)
P0368 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit High Input (Bank 1)
P0369 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent (Bank 1)
P0370 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Malfunction
P0371 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Too Many Pulses
P0372 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Too Few Pulses
P0373 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Intermittent/ Erratic Pulses
P0374 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A No Pulses
P0375 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Malfunction
P0376 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Too Many Pulses
P0377 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Too Few Pulses
P0378 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Intermittent/ Erratic Pulses
P0379 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B No Pulses
P0380 Glow Plug/Heater Circuit Malfunction
P0381 Glow Plug/Heater Indicator Circuit Malfunction
P0382 Glow Plug/Heater Circuit "B" Malfunction
P0385 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Malfunction
P0386 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0387 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Low Input
P0388 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit High Input
P0389 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Intermittent
P0390 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit (Bank 2)
P0391 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0392 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)
P0393 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit High Input (Bank 2)
P0394 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)

P0400 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Malfunction
P0401 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Insufficient Detected
P0402 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Excessive Detected
P0403 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Circuit Malfunction
P0404 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Circuit Range/Performance
P0405 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor A Circuit Low
P0406 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor A Circuit High
P0407 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor B Circuit Low
P0408 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor B Circuit High
P0409 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "A" Circuit
P0410 Secondary Air Injection System Malfunction
P0411 Secondary Air Injection System Incorrect Flow Detected
P0412 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve A Circuit Malfunction
P0413 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve A Circuit Open
P0414 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve A Circuit Shorted
P0415 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve B Circuit Malfunction
P0416 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve B Circuit Open
P0417 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve B Circuit Shorted
P0418 Secondary Air Injection System Relay "A" Circuit Malfunction
P0419 Secondary Air Injection System Relay "B" Circuit Malfunction
P0420 Catalyst System Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0421 Warm Up Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0422 Main Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0423 Heated Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0424 Heated Catalyst Temperature Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0425 Catalyst Temperature Sensor (Bank 1)
P0426 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0427 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Low Input (Bank 1)
P0428 Catalyst Temperature Sensor High Input (Bank 1)
P0429 Catalyst Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1)
P0430 Catalyst System Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0431 Warm Up Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0432 Main Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0433 Heated Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0434 Heated Catalyst Temperature Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0435 Catalyst Temperature Sensor (Bank 2)
P0436 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0437 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Low Input (Bank 2)
P0438 Catalyst Temperature Sensor High Input (Bank 2)
P0439 Catalyst Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2)
P0440 Evaporative Emission Control System Malfunction
P0441 Evaporative Emission Control System Incorrect Purge Flow
P0442 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (small leak)
P0443 Evaporative Emission Control System Purge Control Valve Circuit Malfunction
P0444 Evaporative Emission Control System Purge Control Valve Circuit Open
P0445 Evaporative Emission Control System Purge Control Valve Circuit Shorted
P0446 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Control Circuit Malfunction
P0447 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Control Circuit Open
P0448 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Control Circuit Shorted
P0449 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Valve/Solenoid Circuit Malfunction
P0450 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Malfunction
P0451 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Range/Performance
P0452 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Low Input
P0453 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor High Input
P0454 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Intermittent
P0455 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (gross leak)
P0456 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (very small leak)
P0457 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (fuel cap loose/off)
P0460 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0461 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0462 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0463 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit High Input
P0464 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0465 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0466 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0467 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0468 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit High Input
P0469 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0470 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Malfunction
P0471 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Range/Performance
P0472 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Low
P0473 Exhaust Pressure Sensor High
P0474 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Intermittent
P0475 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Malfunction
P0476 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Range/Performance
P0477 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Low
P0478 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve High
P0479 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Intermittent
P0480 Cooling Fan 1 Control Circuit Malfunction
P0481 Cooling Fan 2 Control Circuit Malfunction
P0482 Cooling Fan 3 Control Circuit Malfunction
P0483 Cooling Fan Rationality Check Malfunction
P0484 Cooling Fan Circuit Over Current
P0485 Cooling Fan Power/Ground Circuit Malfunction
P0486 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "B" Circuit
P0487 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Throttle Position Control Circuit
P0488 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Throttle Position Control Range/Performance
P0491 Secondary Air Injection System (Bank 1)
P0492 Secondary Air Injection System (Bank 2)

P0500 Vehicle Speed Sensor Malfunction
P0501 Vehicle Speed Sensor Range/Performance
P0502 Vehicle Speed Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0503 Vehicle Speed Sensor Intermittent/Erratic/High
P0505 Idle Control System Malfunction
P0506 Idle Control System RPM Lower Than Expected
P0507 Idle Control System RPM Higher Than Expected
P0508 Idle Control System Circuit Low
P0509 Idle Control System Circuit High
P0510 Closed Throttle Position Switch Malfunction
P0512 Starter Request Circuit
P0513 Incorrect Immobilizer Key ("Immobilizer" pending SAE J1930 approval)
P0515 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0516 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit Low
P0517 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit High
P0520 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch Circuit Malfunction
P0521 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch Range/Performance
P0522 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch Low Voltage
P0523 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch High Voltage
P0524 Engine Oil Pressure Too Low
P0530 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0531 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0532 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0533 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0534 Air Conditioner Refrigerant Charge Loss
P0540 Intake Air Heater Circuit
P0541 Intake Air Heater Circuit Low
P0542 Intake Air Heater Circuit High
P0544 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit (Bank 1)
P0545 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0546 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0547 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit (Bank 2)
P0548 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0549 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit High (Bank 2)
P0550 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0551 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0552 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0553 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0554 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0560 System Voltage Malfunction
P0561 System Voltage Unstable
P0562 System Voltage Low
P0563 System Voltage High
P0564 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input Signal
P0565 Cruise Control On Signal Malfunction
P0566 Cruise Control Off Signal Malfunction
P0567 Cruise Control Resume Signal Malfunction
P0568 Cruise Control Set Signal Malfunction
P0569 Cruise Control Coast Signal Malfunction
P0570 Cruise Control Accel Signal Malfunction
P0571 Cruise Control/Brake Switch A Circuit Malfunction
P0572 Cruise Control/Brake Switch A Circuit Low
P0573 Cruise Control/Brake Switch A Circuit High
P0574 Cruise Control System - Vehicle Speed Too High
P0575 Cruise Control Input Circuit
P0576 Cruise Control Input Circuit Low
P0577 Cruise Control Input Circuit High
P0578-P0580 Reserved for Cruise Control Codes

P0600 Serial Communication Link Malfunction
P0601 Internal Control Module Memory Check Sum Error
P0602 Control Module Programming Error
P0603 Internal Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM) Error
P0604 Internal Control Module Random Access Memory (RAM) Error
P0605 Internal Control Module Read Only Memory (ROM) Error
P0606 PCM Processor Fault
P0607 Control Module Performance
P0608 Control Module VSS Output "A" Malfunction
P0609 Control Module VSS Output "B" Malfunction
P0610 Control Module Vehicle Options Error
P0615 Starter Relay Circuit
P0616 Starter Relay Circuit Low
P0617 Starter Relay Circuit High
P0618 Alternative Fuel Control Module KAM Error
P0619 Alternative Fuel Control Module RAM/ROM Error
P0620 Generator Control Circuit Malfunction
P0621 Generator Lamp "L" Control Circuit Malfunction
P0622 Generator Field "F" Control Circuit Malfunction
P0623 Generator Lamp Control Circuit
P0624 Fuel Cap Lamp Control Circuit
P0630 VIN Not Programmed or Mismatch - ECM/PCM
P0631 VIN Not Programmed or Mismatch - TCM
P0635 Power Steering Control Circuit
P0636 Power Steering Control Circuit Low
P0637 Power Steering Control Circuit High
P0638 Throttle Actuator Control Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0639 Throttle Actuator Control Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0640 Intake Air Heater Control Circuit
P0645 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit
P0646 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit Low
P0647 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit High
P0648 Immobilizer Lamp Control Circuit ("Immobilizer" pending SAE J1930 approval)
P0649 Speed Control Lamp Control Circuit
P0650 Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) Control Circuit Malfunction
P0654 Engine RPM Output Circuit Malfunction
P0655 Engine Hot Lamp Output Control Circuit Malfunction
P0656 Fuel Level Output Circuit Malfunction
P0660 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit (Bank 1)
P0661 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0662 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0663 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit (Bank 2)
P0664 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0665 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit High (Bank 2)

P0700 Transmission Control System Malfunction
P0701 Transmission Control System Range/Performance
P0702 Transmission Control System Electrical
P0703 Torque Converter/Brake Switch B Circuit Malfunction
P0704 Clutch Switch Input Circuit Malfunction
P0705 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Malfunction (PRNDL Input)
P0706 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0707 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0708 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit High Input
P0709 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0710 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0711 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0712 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0713 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit High Input
P0714 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0715 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0716 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0717 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0718 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0719 Torque Converter/Brake Switch B Circuit Low
P0720 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0721 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0722 Output Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0723 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0724 Torque Converter/Brake Switch B Circuit High
P0725 Engine Speed Input Circuit Malfunction
P0726 Engine Speed Input Circuit Range/Performance
P0727 Engine Speed Input Circuit No Signal
P0728 Engine Speed Input Circuit Intermittent
P0730 Incorrect Gear Ratio
P0731 Gear 1 Incorrect Ratio
P0732 Gear 2 Incorrect Ratio
P0733 Gear 3 Incorrect Ratio
P0734 Gear 4 Incorrect Ratio
P0735 Gear 5 Incorrect Ratio
P0736 Reverse Incorrect Ratio
P0737 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit
P0738 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit Low
P0739 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit High
P0740 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Malfunction
P0741 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Performance or Stuck Off
P0742 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Stuck On
P0743 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Electrical
P0744 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Intermittent
P0745 Pressure Control Solenoid Malfunction
P0746 Pressure Control Solenoid Performance or Stuck Off
P0747 Pressure Control Solenoid Stuck On
P0748 Pressure Control Solenoid Electrical
P0749 Pressure Control Solenoid Intermittent
P0750 Shift Solenoid A Malfunction
P0751 Shift Solenoid A Performance or Stuck Off
P0752 Shift Solenoid A Stuck On
P0753 Shift Solenoid A Electrical
P0754 Shift Solenoid A Intermittent
P0755 Shift Solenoid B Malfunction
P0756 Shift Solenoid B Performance or Stuck Off
P0757 Shift Solenoid B Stuck On
P0758 Shift Solenoid B Electrical
P0759 Shift Solenoid B Intermittent
P0760 Shift Solenoid C Malfunction
P0761 Shift Solenoid C Performance or Stuck Off
P0762 Shift Solenoid C Stuck On
P0763 Shift Solenoid C Electrical
P0764 Shift Solenoid C Intermittent
P0765 Shift Solenoid D Malfunction
P0766 Shift Solenoid D Performance or Stuck Off
P0767 Shift Solenoid D Stuck On
P0768 Shift Solenoid D Electrical
P0769 Shift Solenoid D Intermittent
P0770 Shift Solenoid E Malfunction
P0771 Shift Solenoid E Performance or Stuck Off
P0772 Shift Solenoid E Stuck On
P0773 Shift Solenoid E Electrical
P0774 Shift Solenoid E Intermittent
P0775 Pressure Control Solenoid "B"
P0776 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Performance or Stuck Off
P0777 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Stuck On
P0778 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Electrical
P0779 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Intermittent
P0780 Shift Malfunction
P0781 1-2 Shift Malfunction
P0782 2-3 Shift Malfunction
P0783 3-4 Shift Malfunction
P0784 4-5 Shift Malfunction
P0785 Shift/Timing Solenoid Malfunction
P0786 Shift/Timing Solenoid Range/Performance
P0787 Shift/Timing Solenoid Low
P0788 Shift/Timing Solenoid High
P0789 Shift/Timing Solenoid Intermittent
P0790 Normal/Performance Switch Circuit Malfunction
P0791 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit
P0792 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0793 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0794 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0795 Pressure Control Solenoid "C"
P0796 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Performance or Stuck Off
P0797 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Stuck On
P0798 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Electrical
P0799 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Intermittent

P0801 Reverse Inhibit Control Circuit Malfunction
P0803 1-4 Upshift (Skip Shift) Solenoid Control Circuit Malfunction
P0804 1-4 Upshift (Skip Shift) Lamp Control Circuit Malfunction
P0805 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit
P0806 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0807 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Low
P0808 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit High
P0809 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0810 Clutch Position Control Error
P0811 Excessive Clutch Slippage
P0812 Reverse Input Circuit
P0813 Reverse Output Circuit
P0814 Transmission Range Display Circuit
P0815 Upshift Switch Circuit
P0816 Downshift Switch Circuit
P0817 Starter Disable Circuit
P0818 Driveline Disconnect Switch Input Circuit
P0820 Gear Lever X-Y Position Sensor Circuit
P0821 Gear Lever X Position Circuit
P0822 Gear Lever Y Position Circuit
P0823 Gear Lever X Position Circuit Intermittent
P0824 Gear Lever Y Position Circuit Intermittent
P0825 Gear Lever Push-Pull Switch (Shift Anticipate)
P0830 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit
P0831 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit Low
P0832 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit High
P0833 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit
P0834 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit Low
P0835 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit High
P0836 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit
P0837 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit Range/Performance
P0838 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit Low
P0839 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit High
P0840 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit
P0841 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0842 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Low
P0843 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit High
P0844 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Intermittent
P0845 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit
P0846 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P0847 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Low
P0848 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit High
P0849 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Intermittent

TOYOTA-SPECIFIC OBD II CODE DEFINITIONS
P1100 BARO Sensor Circuit malfunction
P1120 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P1121 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Range/Performance Problem
P1125 Throttle Control Motor Circuit Malfunction
P1126 Magnetic Clutch Circuit Malfunction
P1127 ETCS Actuator Power Source Circuit Malfunction
P1128 Throttle Control Motor Lock Malfunction
P1129 Electric Throttle Control System Malfunction
P1130 Air-Fuel Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P1133 Air-Fuel Sensor Circuit Response Malfunction
P1135 Air-Fuel Sensor Heater Circuit Response Malfunction
P1150 A/F Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Malfunction
P1153 A./F Sensor Circuit Response Malfunction
P1155 A/F Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction

P1200 Fuel Pump Relay Circuit Malfunction

P1300 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 1
P1305 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 2 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1310 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 2 (Except 1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1310 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 3 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1315 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 4 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1320 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 5 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1325 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 6 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1330 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 7 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1335 No CKP Sensor Signal Engine Running
P1340 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 8 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1346 VVT Sensor /Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Problem (Bank 1)
P1349 VVT System Malfunction
P1351 VVT Sensor /Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Problem (Bank 2)

P1400 Sub-Throttle Position Sensor Malfunction
P1401 Sub-Throttle Position Sensor Range/Performance Problem
P1405 Turbo Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P1406 Turbo Pressure Sensor Range/Performance Problem
P1410 EGR Valve Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P1411 EGR Valve Position Sensor Circuit Ranger/Performance

P1500 Starter Signal Circuit Malfunction
P1510 Boost Pressure Control Circuit Malfunction
P1511 Boost Pressure Low Malfunction
P1512 Boost Pressure High Malfunction
P1520 Stop Lamp Switch Signal Malfunction
P1565 Cruise Control Main Switch Circuit Malfunction

P1600 ECM BATT Malfunction
P1605 Knock Control CPU Malfunction
P1630 Traction Control System Malfunction
P1633 ECM Malfunction ECTS Circuit
P1645 Body ECU Malfunction
P1652 IACV Control Circuit Malfunction
P1656 OCV Circuit Malfunction
P1658 Waste Gate Valve Control Circuit Malfunction
P1661 EGR Circuit Malfunction
P1662 EGR By-Pass Valve Control Circuit Malfunction
P1690 OCV Circuit Malfunction
P1692 OCV Open Malfunction
P1693 OCV Closed Malfunction

P1780 PNP Switch Malfunction

****************************

TROUBLESHOOTING SOME COMMON CODES

P0325
No knock sensor 1 signal to ECM with engine speed 2,000 rpm or more.

Possible Problems
Open or short in knock sensor 1 circuit <= Most likely problem. Check sensor connector for good connection and check wire for damage. Wire is easily damaged when head is removed or similar repair work has been accomplished. Sensor can be tested with ohmmeter. There should be no continuity between the sensor terminal and the sensor body. Replace if there is continuity.
Knock sensor 1 loosness - tighten sensor
ECM

P0330
No knock sensor 2 signal to ECM with engine speed 2,000 rpm or more.

Possible Problems
Open or short in knock sensor 2 circuit <= Most likely problem.Check sensor connector for good connection and check wire for damage. Wire is easily damaged when head is removed or similar repair work has been accomplished. Sensor can be tested with ohmmeter. There should be no continuity between the sensor terminal and the sensor body. Replace if there is continuity.
Knock sensor 2 loosness - tighten sensor
ECM

P0401
After the engine is warmed up, the intake manifold absolute pressure is larger than the value calculated by the ECM while the EGR system is ON (2 trip detection logic).

Possible Problems
EGR valve stuck closed <= Most common Clean EGR valve
EGR Vacuum Switching Valve (VSV)
Open or short in VSV circuit for EGR
EGR valve position sensor open or short circuit
Vacuum or EGR hose disconnected
EGR valve position sensor
Manifold absolute pressure sensor malfunction
ECM

P0402
After the engine is warmed up, conditions (a) and (b) continue.

(a) The intake manifold absolute pressure is larger than the value calculated by the ECM while the EGR system is ON.

(b) Misfiring is detected during idling (2 trip detection logic).

Possible Problems
EGR valve stuck open <= Most common Clean EGR valve
Vacuum or EGR hose is connected to wrong post
Manifold absolute pressure sensor malfunction
ECM

P0440
The fuel tank pressure is atmospheric pressure after the vehicle is driven for 20 min (2 trip detection logic).

Possible Problems
Fuel tank cap incorrectly installed <= Most common
Fuel tank cap cracked or damaged (Toyota part only)
Bad vapor pressure sensor/circuit
Vacuum hose cracked, holed, blocked, damaged or disconnected
Hose or tube cracked, holed, damaged, or loose
Fuel tank/filler neck cracked, holed, or damaged
Charcoal canister cracked, holed, or damaged (collision)

In above description, check hoses between vapor pressur sensor and VSV for vapor pressure sensor and charcoal canister. Also, hose between charcoal canister and fuel tank.


P0441 and/or P0446

Possible Problems
Open or short in VSV circuit for vapor pressure sensor
VSV for vapor pressure sensor
Open or short in vapor pressure sensor circuit
Vapor pressure sensor
Open or short in VSV circuit for EVAP
VSV for EVAP
Vacuum hose cracks, hole, blocked, damaged or disconnected
Charcoal canister cracks, hole, or damaged

(P0446 is not normally associated with a loose or non-sealing gas cap. A loose or non-sealing gas cap triggers P0440)

1. Check the VSV connector for EVAP, VSV connector for vapor pressure sensor and vapor pressure sensor connector for looseness and disconnection

2. Check the vacuum hose between intake manifold and VSV for EVAP, VSV for EVAP and charcoal canister, charcoal canister and VSV for vapor pressure sensor, and VSV for vapor pressure sensor and vapor pressure sensor. Check these hoses for correct connection, looseness, cracks, holes, damage, and blockage.

3. Check voltage between terminals VC and E2 of ECM connector (4.5-5.5 V). (replace ECM if faulty)

4. Check voltages between terminals PTNK and E2 of ECM connector while applying vacuum to vapor pressure sensor (2.9-3.7 V).

If faulty, check for open and short in harness and connector between vapor pressure sensor and ECM. If ok at this point, replace vapor pressure sensor.

If voltage above is ok, Check VSV for EVAP. When ECM terminal EVP is grounded (ignition "ON"), Air should flow in pipe E (inboard on tube) on VSV and out F (outboard on tube) on VSV (Don't use high pressure air for this test). When EVP is not grounded, air does not flow in E and out F.

5. Check operation of VSV for EVAP. Remove VSV from engine. Check that there is continuity between the two terminals (30-34 ohms). If there is no continuity, replace VSV for EVAP.

Check that there is no continuity between either terminal and body. If there is continuity, replace VSV for EVAP.

Check that air does not flow from inner port (E) to outboard port (F).

Check that air flows from port E to F when you apply battery voltage across terminals. If no air flows, replace VSV for EVAP.

6. Check the vacuum hose between intake manifold and VSV for EVAP, and VSV for EVAP and charcoal canister. Check as above.

7. Check for open or short in harness and connector between EFI main-relay and VSV for EVAP and ECM. If faulty, repair or replace harness or connector. If ok, check and replace ECM.

8. Check VSV for vapor pressure sensor. When ECM terminal TPC is grounded (ignition "ON"), Air should flow in pipe E (inboard on tube) on VSV and out F (outboard on tube) on VSV. When TPC is not grounded, air flows out G (outside of connector).

If ok, check and replace charcoal canister.

If not functioning correctly, check function of VSV for vapor pressure sensor. Remove from engine.
Check that there is continuity between the terminals (33-39 ohms). Replace the VSV if there is no continuity.

Check that air flows from port E (inboard in tube) to port G (side of connector).

Check that air flows from port E to port F (outboard in tube) when battery voltage is applied across terminals. Replace VSV if function is incorrect.

9. If good, Check the vacuum hose between charcoal canister and VSV for vapor pressure sensor, and vapor pressure sensor and VSV for vapor pressure sensor - check as above.

11. Check for open and short in harness and connector between EFI main replay and VSV for vapor pressure sensor and ECM.

P0770 Shift Solenoid E Malfunction

Solenoid E (SL) is the torque converter lock-up solenoid. If the torque converter is a little slow locking up, it will set this code. May only be a one-time thing owing to a small particle of something getting jammed in the solenoid. The code may disappear by itself.

If it doesn't right away, check out the color of your tranny fluid. If it is pretty much red or brown and smells ok, then flush the tranny and see if that gets rid of the code. If not, pull out some fluid and add a bottle of Seafoam Trans Tune and run it for 1 or 2k miles. Then flush the transmission again. Check if the code is gone.

If this problem persists, I've been told you'll have to replace the E-solenoid.

There is a Service Bulleting (EG006-00) issued for '00 Siennas on this problem. They get a new torque converter to fix the problem permanently.

The following discussion was submitted by csaxon:

The ECM uses signals from throttle position sensor, airflow meter and crankshaft position sensor to monitor engagement of Torque Converter Clutch (TCC).

The ECM compares engagement condition of TCC with lock-up schedule in memory to detect MECHANICAL trouble of lock-up solenoid, valve body and torque converter. A P0700 trouble code is set when TCC lock-up does not occur during appropriate speed, or lock-up does not release at appropriate speed.

Possible causes are:
* Solenoid is stuck open or closed.
* Valve body clogged or valve stuck.
* TCC malfunction.

There are simple electrical tests to check the solenoid and plunger but the transmission pan must be removed to gain access.

As Brian suggests, if you haven't had your system flushed or changed in awhile it may help but I'm not sure that's cheaper than actually removing the pan and checking the solenoid.

The Toyota service tech can check the system without pan removal with his analyzer.

P1780 PNP Switch Malfunction

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=504073

Brian R.
06-30-2005, 04:16 PM
HALF-SHAFT REPLACEMENT

Thanks Erndog1396

Q: I have a torn CV boot. What is the best way to fix it?

A: Buy a remanufactured axle. Remove the large CV boot clamp just to the outside of the innermost bearing. Pull the inner joint apart, and when you get the new axle, do the same thing, and install the new half shaft and replace the clamp. This is the easiest way to do it, and you will still replace all the wearable parts of the axle.

Brian R.
07-01-2005, 10:10 AM
ENGINE PARTS LOCATION

Q: Where is my PCV valve? I have a 1997 Corolla and I have no clue.

A: Try Autozone Repair Information - click on "Component Location":

http://www1.autozone.com/servlet/UiBroker?ForwardPage=/az/repair_info/repair_info.jsp


GENERAL MAINTENANCE AND TECHNIQUES

Q: What maintenance should I do on my Corolla? I am not an accomplished mechanic, but I have tools and can do simple stuff, given some instructions. Any hints and general information for guys like me?

A: Here are instructions for recommended maintenance on a 3rd gen Camry. Other generation Camrys may differ slightly, but the concepts and techniques are the same and the specific requirements are very close to general information for all Toyotas.

5S-FE 2.2L I4
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint01.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint02.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint03.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint04.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint05.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint06.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint07.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint08.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint09.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint10.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint11.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint12.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint13.jpg
http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/Maintenance/Maint14.jpg

COMMENTS AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON ABOVE RECOMMENDATIONS

What Brand of Air Filter Performs Best?
Here is a study of a number of brands of air filters using ISO 5011:
http://home.usadatanet.net/~jbplock/ISO5011/SPICER.htm

Power Steering Fluid Change
Here is a procedure from toyotanation with pics:
http://www.toyotanation.com/forum/t19334.html

Spark Plug Change
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=419457

Use only Toyota-recommended spark plugs.

Since the heads on both the above engines are aluminum, you must coat the spark plug threads with a small amount of anti-seize compound before you install them.

Start threading the spark plugs by using a rubber hose pushed over the insulator of the spark plug so that you don't accidentally damage the threads in the head. If one doesn't go in easily, back it out and try again. Don't force them. Cross-threading the spark plug holes will eventually cost you money.

Oil Weight Recommendation
Use 5W-30 oil under all conditions unless you live in Arizona, Southern Texas, Fargo, etc. There is a significant benefit to getting the oil flowing immediately after start-up.

Replacing Engine Coolant.
Make sure you get all the air out of the system before you cap the radiator. Run the engine at idle with the radiator cap off and add coolant as necessary to keep the radiator full of coolant. Once the engine reaches operating temperature and the coolant begins to overflow, replace the radiator cap and fill the coolant reservoir to the hot line. Check the coolant level in the reservoir after the next time you drive it and it has had a chance to cool down.

Valve Clearance Adjustment
In general, you don't have to adjust the valve clearances in these engines unless you have modified the valve train in some way. Leave well-enough alone unless you have a specific need.

Drive Shaft Boots Preventive Maintenance
Spray them with silicone lubricant (WD-40 has also been recommended to me) every time you are under the car for an oil change. This will prevent them from drying out and they will last forever. Cracked and leaking boots are common after 6-8 years without some treatment and replacing the half-shafts because of this is expensive.

Replacing Transmission Fluid
It is preferable to flush the transmission and replace all the fluid this way, rather than just draining the small amount of fluid in the pan. The vast majority of the transmission fluid is trapped in the torque converter and the valve body and is not changed by draining the pan only. I have been told that it is unnecessary to change the filter in the transmission. It is wire mesh and only meant to keep chunks of stuff out of the valve body.

If your serious about transmission maintenance, try this link for parts and transmission repair manuals:

http://www.drivetrain.com/autotransoverhaulkits.html

General Maintenance
Always use a torque wrench to tighten fasteners to the recommended torque value. A pair of torque wrenches (one large and one small) are indespensible for auto maintenance, particularly when you have an aluminum engine/head. Two torque wrenches I recommend (or their equivalent) are:

http://www.sears.com/sr/javasr/product.do?BV_SessionID=@@@@1796327765.1120232008@ @@@&BV_EngineID=ccciaddfdegmkefcegecegjdghldghg.0&pid=00944595000&vertical=TOOL
http://www.sears.com/sr/javasr/product.do?BV_UseBVCookie=Yes&vertical=TOOL&pid=00944593000

These are micrometer-style torque wrenches. You dial in the required torque and then the wrench clicks strongly when you exert the force necessary to tighten the bolt. To keep their accuracy, store them with the torque setting on a very low value. You can pay alot more for better wrenches, but these are more than adequate. Evenness of torque around a bolt pattern is more important that the actual torque value of the pattern.

Don't extend the lever arm of a torque wrench with a crow's foot or other device. If you make the socket end of the torque wrench longer, you increase the torque applied to the bolt. If you have to use a lengthening adapter, use it at a 90 degree angle to the torque wrench shaft.

Also, always make sure you are tightening a bolt or nut with lubricated threads (oil for steel hole, antiseize compound for aluminum hole). Bolts always have to go into clean holes. Run a flat-bottom tap into all holes that won't accept a bolt hand-tight to the bottom. Follow tightening sequences when provided - tighten gradually in three steps 1/3, 2/3, then recommended torque over entire bolt pattern.

Tighten bolts in a bolt pattern only loosely until all the bolts have been inserted and are threaded into the holes. If you tighten some down prematurely, it will be very difficult or impossible to insert all the bolts and you will have to loosen the tight bolts anyway.

Brian R.
07-01-2005, 09:43 PM
GETTING RID OF BINDING STOCK ANTENNA

Q: My trunk keeps hitting my antenna since it won't go down the way it should. Is there a cheap fix for this?

A: Some guys install a Honda S2000 antenna in place of the stock one.

See this article:
http://www.toyotanation.com/forum/t65507.html


HAZY HEADLIGHT COVERS

Q: My headlight covers are so hazy, I had to buy HID lights just so I would have enough light to drive buy. What can I do to polish them?

A: See the solutions posted in this thread:

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=230436

Brian R.
07-02-2005, 01:56 PM
CAR RUNS POORLY AT STOP LIGHT AND WANTS TO DIE

Q: My car starts good, runs ok going down the highway, but at a light it runs like poo-poo and wants to cut out. Any suggestions?

A: I'll bet your EGR valve is clogged. To check: Get a common hammer, locate the EGR, make it run bad, rap the EGR with the hammer (don't break it). You should be able to get the valve to unstick and it will idle like magic! Clean out the EGR with a coat hanger and carb cleaner or replace.

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=375652
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=201333
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=280858
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=194096

Brian R.
07-10-2005, 08:10 PM
REBUILDING YOUR OWN ALTERNATOR

Q: My brake and charge lights come on at the same time when the engine is running. What does that mean?

A: If the brake and charge lights come on during revving of the engine then it's a sign that the carbon alternator brushes require replacing as this is the mileage for them to wear out. In alternators the brushes wear out on average every 140-170 000 miles where on the dashboard the brake & charge light both come on at the same time. About half of the auto electric shops in your local yellow pages sell carbon alternator brushes and copper solenoid starter contacts for about $5/pair.Another way to verify that the alternator is not charging is while the engine is running bring a metal screwdriver or any metal object near the alternator and if the alternator is working properly then it should act like a magnet and grab the screwdriver.

For carbon brushes R&R:

http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/maintenance/alternator_brushes/ http://www.toyotaoffroad.net/afertig/88/alternatorbrushes.htm
http://perso.wanadoo.fr/adherence.4x4/alternateur_kzj.htm
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=166525
http://www.toyotanation.com/forum/showthread.php?threadid=27270&forumid=10
http://www.pirate4x4.com/forum/showthread.php?s=&threadid=26734&highlight=alternator+brush+holder
http://www.bitwalla.com/cruisers/articles/alternator.html
http://www.barneymc.com/toy_root/techtalk/electric/altrnatr.htm

For decoding the dashboard lights:

http://www.powerbase-auto.co.uk/alternator_faults.htm
http://members.1stconnect.com/anozira/SiteTops/energy/Alternator/alternator.htm

Here are part #'s for Toyota alternator carbon brushes and copper solenoid starter contacts which are used in about 95% of all Toyota vehicles.

Toyota alternator Brushes with holder:

Toyota # 27370-35060=$29 CDN
Honda # 31105-PZ1-003
Metro # 39-82003 (www.metroautoinc.com ,Pomona,California)
Unknown brand name # F4019-53035

Alternator brush only (qty:1 brush unless otherwise stated):

AC Delco # E724
AC Delco # E731 (side wire and concave tip)
Ace Electric # DA-61 (brush only),S-5367 (brush holder)
Beck Arnley # 178-1669 (side wire and concave tip)
Beck Arnley # 178-1376
Borg Warner # X580 (side wire and concave tip)
Canadian Tire # 19-2050-6=$4.49/pair
Daihatsu # 27370-87302-000
Daihatsu # 27371-63020-000
Daihatsu # 27371-87501-000
Daihatsu # 27371-70300-000
Echlin # E601=$8.16 CDN/pair (UAP/NAPA)
Echlin # ECHE601
Echlin # EC480
Echlin # ECHE480
GP Sorensen # 255047 (side wire and concave tip)
GM # 94123056
GM # 96054118
Honda # 31144-PD1-004=$9.72
Honda # 31144-PD1-0040
Honda # 31144-PD1-0030
Honda # 31150-PR7-A01
Honda # 31150-PTO-003
Hino Industries # 021660-0390
Hino Industries # 021660-0510
Isuzu # 8-94123-056-0
Isuzu # 8-97032-308-0
Isuzu # 8-97032-310-0
Mazda # 021660-0390
Mazda # 021660-0510
Mazda # KL47-18-W75
Metro # 38-82001(side wire concave tip) (www.metroautoinc.com ,Pomona,California)
Mileage Plus # E601SB
Mitsubishi # MD604474
Mitsubishi # 21660-0510
Niehoff # WA571 (side wire and concave tip)
NipponDenso # 021660-0390
NipponDenso # 021660-0510
Standard # JX-116 (side wire and concave tip)
Subaru # 021660-0390
Subaru # 021660-0510
Suzuki # 31631-82610
Suzuki # 31656-82611
Suzuki # 021660-0510
Toyota # 27370-42010
Toyota # 27370-75060
Toyota # 27371-63020=$5.80 (up to 9105) (side wire and concave tip)
Toyota # 27371-70300=$5.20 (9105-9511)
Toyota # 27371-76004-71
UAP/NAPA # MPEE601SB
Victory Lap # FAX57=$4.49 CDN/pair (Canadian Tire)
Wilson's Electric # 26-29-7534 (side wire and concave tip)=$2.20 each CDN (Diesel Auto Electric)(Parts for Trucks, box of 10 for $3.40 CDN)

Specifications:
Length=15 mm
Width=7 mm
Thickness=5 mm
Lead length=49 mm

These Honda alternators are the same except the pulley must be swapped:

1986-89 Honda Accord (Carb),the EFI can be used but the voltage reg must be swapped
1990-93 Acura Integra

Thanks to SydneyCanada for the above information

Brian R.
07-12-2005, 11:47 PM
MOBILE ELECTRONICS/STEREO INSTALLATION

Q: Where can I find information on how to install a new stereo?

A: The Install Doctor is a good source:
http://www.installdr.com/

also see:

http://www.autozone.com/servlet/UiBroker?ForwardPage=/az/cds/en_us/0900823d/80/13/f1/50/0900823d8013f150.jsp

http://www.autozone.com/servlet/UiBroker?ForwardPage=/az/cds/en_us/0900823d/80/13/fc/58/0900823d8013fc58.jsp

Brian R.
07-13-2005, 12:10 AM
TECHNICAL ARTICLES ON TOYOTA ENGINE SYSTEMS
EXTENSIVE AUTOMOTIVE INFORMATION LINKS

Q: Where can I find technical information on my EGR system? I want to modify it and I'd better understand what's going on there first. :)

A: A good source of technical articles and automotive information links is Kevin Sullivan's Autoshop 101 site:

http://www.autoshop101.com/

Here are the titles of his technical articles followed by direct links to the articles:

Technical Articles
Toyota Series - Electrical
Electrical Fundamentals with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h1.pdf

Electrical Circuits with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h2.pdf

Electrical Components with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h3.pdf

Analog vs Digital Meters with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h4.pdf

Wire, Terminal and Connector Repair w/qu.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h5.pdf

Automotive Batteries with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h6.pdf

Toyota Starting Systems with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h7.pdf

Toyota Charging Systems with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h8.pdf

Understanding Toyota Wiring Diagram.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h09e.pdf

Electrical Diagnostic Tools.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h10e.pdf

Diagnosing Body Electrical Problems.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h11e.pdf

Semiconductors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h12.pdf

Transistors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h13.pdf

Computers / Logic Gates with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h14.pdf

Overview of Sensors & Actuators w/quest.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h15.pdf

Electronic Transmission #1 - Operation.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h16.pdf

Electronic Transmission #2 - Diagnosis w/quest.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h17.pdf

Shift Interlock System.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h18.pdf


Technical Articles
Toyota Series - Engine Performance OBDI (pre-1996 5S-FE and pre-1994 V6)
EFI#1 EFI System Overview.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h20.pdf

EFI#2 Air Induction System.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h21.pdf

EFI#3 Fuel Delivery & Injection Controls.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h22.pdf

EFI#4 Ignition System.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h23.pdf

Engine Controls #1 - Input Sensors.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h24.pdf

Engine Controls #2 - ECU/Outputs.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h25.pdf

Engine Controls #3 - Idle Speed Control.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h26.pdf

Engine Controls #4 - Diagnosis.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h27.pdf


Technical Articles
Toyota Series - Engine Performance OBD-II (1996 and newer 5S-FE, and '94 and newer 1MZ-FE)

Sensors#1 - Mode Sensors and Switches.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h31.pdf

Sensors#2 - Thermistors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h32.pdf

Sensors#3 - Position Sensors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h33.pdf

Sensors#4 - Air Flow Sensors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h34.pdf

Sensors#5 - Pressure Sensors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h35.pdf

Sensors#6 - Speed Sensors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h36.pdf

Sensors#6 - Oxygen / Air Fuel Sensors w/ques.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h37.pdf

Sensors#8 - Knock Sensors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h38.pdf

Ignition#1 - Ignition Overview w/questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h39.pdf

Ignition#2 - Electronic Spark Advance w/quest.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h40.pdf

Ignition#3 - Distributor / Distributorless w/qu.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h41.pdf

Fuel System#1 - Overview with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h42.pdf

Fuel System#2 - Injection Duration w/ques.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h43.pdf

Fuel System#3 - Closed Loop /Fuel Trim w/qu.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h44.pdf

OBDII#1 - Overview of On-Board Diagnostics.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h46.pdf

OBDII#2 - Serial Data.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h47.pdf

OBDII#3 - Data Interpretation.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h48.pdf

Emission#1 - Chemistry of Combustion.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h55.pdf

Emission#2 - Emission Analysis.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h56.pdf

Emission#3 - Engine Sub Systems.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h57.pdf

Emission#4 - Closed Loop Feedback Systems.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h58.pdf

Emission#5 - Electronic Spark Advance.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h59.pdf

Emission#6 - Idle Speed Control Systems.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h60.pdf

Emission#7 - Exhause Gas Recirculation.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h61.pdf

Emission#8 - Evaporative Emission Control.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h62.pdf

Emission#9 - Positive Crankcase Ventilation.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h63.pdf

Emission#10 - Catalytic Converter.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h64.pdf

Emission#11 - Secondary Air.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h65.pdf


Don't ignore the information and links in the "Automotive Links" section. Also, the "Online Bookstore" is useful if you want to get ASE certified.

Brian R.
07-22-2005, 09:20 AM
OBDI CODES AND TROUBLESHOOTING

OBDI Procedures and Diagnostics:

http://personal.utulsa.edu/~nathan-buchanan/93fsm/engine/85diagnosi.pdf

and

[http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?p=3198722&goto=3198722

Download and see page EG1-300

and

http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h27.pdf

Summary:
If your car is a '96 or newer, you need an OBDII code reader. If your car is '94-'96, then you have to check under your hood on the emissions sticker to tell if it is OBDII or OBDI. If your car is '93 or older, then it is OBDI.

For OBDII codes, check:

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showpost.php?p=3203705&postcount=21

Codes:
1 O2A - Oxygen sensor #1
2 O2B - Oxygen sensor #2
3 MAP - manifold absolute pressure sensor
4 CKP - crank position sensor
5 MAP - manifold absolute pressure sensor
6 ECT - water temperature sensor
7 TPS - throttle position sensor
8 TDC - top dead centre sensor
9 CYP - cylinder sensor
10 IAT - intake air temperature sensor
12 EGR - exhaust gas recirculation lift valve
13 BARO - atmospheric pressure sensor
14 IAC (EACV) - idle air control valve
15 Ignition output signal
16 Fuel injectors
17 VSS - speed sensor
19 Automatic transmission lockup control valve
20 Electrical load detector
21 VTEC spool solenoid valve
22 VTEC pressure valve
23 Knock sensor
30 Automatic transmission A signal
31 Automatic transmission B signal
36 traction control found on JDM ecu's
41 Primary oxygen sensor heater
43 Fuel supply system
45 Fuel system too rich or lean
48 LAF - lean air fuel sensor
54 CKF - crank fluctuation sensor
58 TDC sensor #2
61 Primary oxygen sensor
63 Secondary oxygen sensor
65 Secondary oxygen sensor heater
67 Catalyst low efficiency. (same as P0420)
71 random misfire cylinder 1
72 random misfire cylinder 2
73 random misfire cylinder 3
74 random misfire cylinder 4
80 Exhaust Gas Recirculation insufficient flow detected
86 ECT Sensor (Engine Coolant Temperature) circuit range / performance problem
90 Evaporative Emission Control System leak detected in the fuel tank area
91 Evaporative Emission Control System insufficient purge flow

Brian R.
08-15-2005, 09:58 PM
AIR CONDITIONING PROBLEMS

BLOWS HOT AIR

Q: My a/c doesn't work any more. All it does is blow hot air, never cold. What could be the problem?

A: Refill your a/c with freon. Put in freon until the compressor starts and there are no bubbles showing in the sight glass. If adding freon with the a/c on doesn't immediately start up the compressor, check the pressure sensor.

Q: Do I have to add any compressor oil when I fill the freon?

A: No, the only time you have to add compressor oil is if you have replaced a part in the system. There are tables that show how much oil to add, depending on which part(s) were replaced.

COMPRESSOR DOESN'T KEEP SPINNING

Q: 2.0 Toyota Camry 4 cylinders

What's happened is that when i turn on my ac, my compressor does start working, but it looses grip. I'm talking about the pulley.

When you look at the pulley with the belt on it, there is another thing like a pulley inside it. when ac is off, it doesn't spin, and that's how it should be. but when ac is on, it grips and spins for a second or two, then stops. It grips for another second or two, and stops. this goes on forever. when it does grip and spin, the second fan behind radiator starts. (other one keeps running). when it stops spinning, so does the fan.

Any suggestions?

A: Sounds like its low on refrigerant and its cutting off because of the low pressure, short-cycling. It probably needs to be recharged.

ENGINE IDLES REALLY BAD WITH A/C ON

Q: I just had my A/C fixed & it is blowing cold air! Anyways when I run it my A/C it feels like the engine is going to fly out of the hood! My whole car is like shaking then when I stop at stops it feels like the engine is going to die! Like it doesn't have enough engine power to keep both of them running! Any help would be useful. Thanks

I have a 1991 toyota camry wagon. V6 engine. Automatic.

A: Let me tell you this much. Most of the time, it is only a matter of adjusting your intake (commonly known as idle). Now, when you stop, you said that the engine feels like it's about to die. That, to the best of my judgement without hands-on work on the car, is because when you turn on the AC, the clutches in the ac compressor grip and engine is losing power because it's being used to spin the compressor pulley. That means it needs more fuel now. The mixture of air/fuel is not right. This CAN be a real pain in the backyard. For an easy no-brainer fix, all you have to do is get a flat screw driver and increaser the idle. How do you do that? Don't make me die laughing, but look at the intake, (you can see it looks like a tube right behind the engine where the air filter hose is going and I think it should say EFI (electronic fuel injection) on it). Look from above it and you should see a screw with a flat head that's probably made up of plastic. all you do is open it up, that's turning left just in case you don't know. This increases the amount of air going inside the engine. Open it up until the engine doesn't shake and the car runs smooth. All this should be done with the AC turned on all the way to full. Next, when all this is done, turn the AC off and see if it shakes now. If it doesn't, BINGO!!!!

If it does, welcome to our world. Just keep tweaking and messing around with it until you get it to your liking.

WHAT REFRIGERANT IS IN 1993 CAMRY?

Q: Does anyone know what type of A/C refrigerant the 5S-FE 93 Camry takes and how much and where I'd pump it into? I know I'm not supposed to be messing with that, but I think it's out of refrigerant anyway, and I just need to recharge it.

A: The 93 will take R12 but check the label under the hood to make sure, just in case someone has converted it to R134A. You can't purchase R12 over the counter any longer without a certificate, so if it's still R12 you will have to take it in some place to have it recharged. Be prepaired to pay some heavy dollars for it.

Q: I can't find any label under the hood, and, quite frankly, I wouldn't know what to look for as far as a 134A conversion.

A: The ports for R-12 has thread on them. The ones for R134a are quick connect type. If it's not converted, you should still have R-12.

I just converted my 92 to 134a refrigerant. It was quick and easy. The low end is in the back left side of the engine bay and the high side(you dont really use it) is right up front. I got a kit from autozone for 30bucks. 3 cans of refrigerant, pressure gauge/filler, and the adapters. It took longer to find the low end cap then it did to fill it. Quick 15min job. Well worth it. I have Ice cold A/c now!

You can buy Freeze12 and use it as a replacement for R12. It is available in stores and you can install it yourself.

Q: On the 134a conversion...did you end up having to do anything with the actual condensor? I've seen stuff where you have to remove that and change oil in it or something to that effect. And does the Freeze 12 require anything special, or do you just pump it into the system? Can you point me in the direction of the low end cap? pics would be nice, too. thanks in advance

A: Freeze12 just pumps in.

looking at the car from the front, with the hood up, its at the very back of the engine bay, against the firewall, at the back left corner, and its about 8 inches or so down into the engine bay. its kinda down below the passenger side of the engine bay, all the way in the back left corner.

With the incompatibility of the fittings, I don't think you can mix the two propellants unless you really work hard at it.

Brian R.
08-15-2005, 11:48 PM
WINDSHIELD SCRATCHES

Q: My windshield has 2 wiper marks from crappy wiper blades. how can i get rid of them? Is there some kind of cleaner that wil bring them off?

A: If you can feel them with your finger nails they will not come out by cleaning, If not too deep you may be able to get the out with some very fine rubbing compound, some people use tooth paste. Do a Google search and see what come up. Be advised, it will require lots of time and effort and still may not work.

Q: Thanks for the reply. The marks are very light. I have some stuff called Plastix from Meguiers. It does an excellent job on plastic getting scratches and oxidation out. Do you think that will work?

A: It shouldn't hurt anything to try the Plastix. If that doesn't help here is an article that describes how to polish out scratches in windshields.

http://www.valvoline.com/carcare/articleviewer.asp?pg=ccr20030101wp&print=1

Brian R.
08-24-2005, 11:01 PM
BRAKE LIGHTS COME ON WHEN HEADLIGHTS ARE APPLIED

Q: Just purchased a 96 Camry. Has a few problems that I am working through. Have one that is a real stumper for me. The brake lights work fine during normal daytime driving conditions. When the headlights are turned on the brake lights are on. I have check the wiring and have found nothing shorted together. Thanks for any help.

A: The bulbs are probably installed incorrectly. You may have single filament bulb in a socket meant for double filament bulbs, or the correct bulbs may have been forced in backwards.

Brian R.
08-25-2005, 07:25 PM
HOW TO MAKE MY CAR LAST AS LONG AS POSSIBLE

Q: My Corolla has 189,998 miles on it and it is running like a charm; all the things that I believe need to be replaced have been. I'm not going to be able to invest in another car for a while since I'm in college. Therefore, I'm going to need this car to last close to forever until I get a good job with some formidable income. I was wondering if there are any tips you could suggest for me to keep this thing running like the energizer bunny..?

A: Add an auxiliary transmission cooler. Pick a core up at a junkyard for $5-15usd, two 5/16" brass T fittings, 8 small hose clamps, zip ties, 5/16" oil hose.

Flush the transmission fluid every other year, or drain the pan every other oil change.

Change the oil every 5,000 miles - 6 months for dino oil, 7500-10,000 miles - 10 months for good synthetics. If your engine is one that is prone to sludge, shorten the above intervals appropriately (see first post in this thread).

Clean oil pan & screen, transmission pan & screen & change transmission filter every 5 years.

Rotate tires every oil change, twice if you're using a long life synthetic.

Clean the inside of the upper portion of the intake manifold, throttle plate, ISC/IAC valve(idle valve), and EGR valve yearly.

Change differential fluid every four years.

Flush the brake system with fresh DOT3, DOT4, or DOT4+/DOT5.1 every three years.

Change the fluid in the power steering reservoir every year, or flush the power steering system every other year.

Flush the cooling system every other year, or drain yearly.

Change radiator cap<s> & thermostat every 5 years.

Change PCV valve every 5 years.

Change O2 sensor<s> before 100,000 miles accumulates.

Change cat convertor before 100,000 miles accumulates.

Change distributor cap & rotor every other spark plug change (120,000 miles).

Check belts yearly, change belts when needed, change all belts (including timing belt) every 90,000 miles. Replace the water pump every other timing belt change.

Otherwise, just keep track of things. Like CV boots, things you need to grease, seals that can leak etc.

Use only NGK, or Denso spark plugs. Might as well be the generic $1 versions, as they last over the specified change time.

If spark plug wires ever become damaged, only replace with OEM wires, or high quality wires.

Lightly spray your CV boots with silicone lubricant when you're under the car for each oil change. Get as much of the surface shiny as you can. They will last a long time.

Pay attention to the body lube points and check the torque the chassis bolts as recommended by Toyota.

Make sure you use a high quality air filter. Some are very coarse and let in alot of abrasive dust. They do this in the name of high-performance, but other real hp filters are much better. Oil-wetted elements are the best (AMSOIL, TRD, etc). They actually trap the dust in the oil and prevent it from bouncing off the filter element.

Wash off the bottom of the car, wheel wells, bottom of engine compartment, etc a couple of times after salt exposure in the winter. As long as it's really cold, the salt is not too harmful. Once it has warmed above freezing, wash it off as soon as you can, at least once.

Wax your paint at least once a year before winter. More often is better. Use a good quality wax (I like Meguires, but there are alot of good ones).

Get the carbon out of your combustion chambers periodically - maybe every 100k or so. SeaFoam is quite good for this. Adding some to the gas (or Techron) once in a while is a good idea to minimize deposits on the injectors.

Watch all your fluid levels often. Even if they never change, if one of them suddenly start dropping, it is much better to catch it now than when something starts making noise.

To state the obvious: Drive your car like you want it to last. Everything else being equal, the harder you drive it, the less miles it will have in it.

(Thanks to Toysrme for alot of the above recommendations)

See also hints in http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=449003

Brian R.
09-07-2005, 12:48 PM
INCREASING GAS MILEAGE

Q: How can I increase my gas mileage?

A: Make sure you are using a fresh air filter. You may consider getting an oil-wetted filter from TRD or AMSOIL. They are very efficient, reusable after cleaning and re-oiling, and somewhat expensive. They are free-flowing compared with efficient paper filters and you can clean them as often as you like. I clean mine every 10k. The TRD filter is oil-wetted cotton and the AMSOIL filter is oil-wetted double layered plastic open cell foam.

Tweak your AFM (on engines that have them instead of a MAF meter) as shown in:
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showpost.php?p=3196974&postcount=11
There is probably an optimum setting for gas mileage.

Your engine may get better mileage with higher octane gas, particularly if you do alot of highway driving. Use higher octane gas for a few tankfuls when you are on a trip, keeping track of the mileage and gas used, and see if that makes any difference. If not, don't waste your money. Say the price of 87 octane is 30 cents cheaper than 89 octane and you get 20% better mileage (from 15 mpg to 18 mpg) with the 89 octane. If the price of gas for the 87 octane is $3.00/gal, then you are paying 10% more per gallon, while saving 20% in gasoline usage. This is a good bargain. If you break even, I would still use the higher octane gas. You have to do the math and the experiment on your truck. At some price, it will be worth it for some percent increase in mileage. In all honesty, you probably won't see a difference in mileage between the octanes, meaning you should use 87 octane. However, it doesn't cost much to try and you should know about it if your vehicle derives a benefit from the higher octane gas.

Keep an eye on your ignition timing, idle speed, and wheel alignment. A high idle speed will cost you, as well as retarded ignition timing or bad alignment.

Fill your tires with 4-6 more psi than that recommended in your door label. Low tire pressure will cost you. Don't fill the tires above the maximum psi labeled on the tire.

Keep your injectors clean with a fuel additive periodically.

Get any "Check Engine" light problem immediately. Many times you engine will default to a standard condition when a sensor goes bad. It gets you where you're going, but it is far from optimum as far as engine efficiency goes.

Exhaust headers and lower restriction cat converters and mufflers will help your mileage to varying degrees. Buy stuff that you find has helped other Camry owners.

I don't believe in cold air intakes. They are a waste of money IMO. Maybe some vehicles have poorly-designed intake systems and are helped by almost any mod. Yours is not one of them.

Use 5W30 oil in your engine - possibly 0W30 or 5W20. I have heard they work fine, but I have not tried them myself. Those lower viscosity oils will certainly make a difference in your gas mileage.

For additional hints and suggestions, see the following links:

http://www.procarcare.com/icarumba/resourcecenter/encyclopedia/icar_resourcecenter_encyclopedia_fuelsaving.asp

http://www.performancempg.com/lubricationnews/better_fuel_mileage.htm

(information on the above two sites authored by ctelsa)

Brian R.
10-20-2005, 09:30 PM
FIXING PAINT CHIPS AND SCRATCHES

Materials
1. Small bottle of the proper Toyota touch up paint and Toyota clear coat, if needed (Toyota metallic finishes are clearcoat; a non-metallic colors were not).
2. DuPont PrepSol (available from autobody supply).
3. Disposable touch-up microbrushes made by ProTouch (from an autobody supply).
4. 3M Perfect-It II Rubbing Compound, Fine Cut (from an autobody supply).
5. Lacquer thinner to keep brush clean.
6. Wet-dry sandpaper: 1000 grit, 1500 grit, and 2000 grit (there is a new product out that is an alternative to wet sanding for use in auto touch ups - check it out at http://www.langka.com).

Procedure - Scratches
Use this procedure for long scratches and for large chips.

1. Use 1000 grit paper and wet-sand the scratch and the area around it. Make sure to use lots of water when sanding. This keeps scratching to a minimum.
2. Use DuPont Prepsol to clean wax off before touch-up.
3. Using microbrush and liberal amounts of paint, touch up the full-length of the scratch. As soon as the paint drys (10 minutes) do another coat. Repeat until you have done sufficient coats to have built a small mound of paint over the length of the scratch.
4. Let dry for 24 hours.
5. Now wet-sand the touched up surface with 1500 grit wet sandpaper. Sand in a front to rear motion since that's the direction the car is painted with, hence: you're going with the grain of the paint. Sand until you have eliminated the mound and any touchup paint outside of the scratch.
6. Clean area thoroughly and let dry.
7. Take a clean microbrush and begin to apply the clearcoat to the area. Don't be afraid to be liberal with it and don't try and keep the clearcoat within the scratch area. Apply approximately 3-4 coats, again until there is a small mound. Let it set and completely dry for 4-5 days.
8. Now, wet sand with 2000 grit wet sand paper. You will begin to see the clearcoated scratch blend into the rest of the paint - thus disappearing. (It produces a very gratifying feeling!)

Procedure - Chips
You can use this abbreviated procedure to fix the many small chips on the hood and front fascia.

1. Use 1000 grit paper and wet-sand the scratch and the area around it. Make sure to use lots of water when sanding. This keeps scratching to a minimum.
2. Use DuPont Prepsol to clean wax off before touch-up.
3. Using microbrush and liberal amounts of paint, touch up the chip. As soon as the paint drys (10 minutes) do another coat. Repeat until you have done sufficient coats to have built a small mound of paint over the expanse of the chip.
4. Let dry for 24 hours.
5. Wet sand with 2000 grit wet sand paper. You will begin to see the touch-up paint blend into the rest of the paint - nearly disappearing. The repairs are not noticable to passersby, and look much better than the chips did.

Note: The clear coat on the flexible plastic parts doesn't rub back as well as the rest of the paint, probably due to the flex agents in the paint..

Adapted from a post to VetteNet by Doug Johnson, and to the Grand Prix mailing list by Paul Berndt.

Brian R.
01-03-2006, 04:24 PM
Torque Specifications

Q: I need torque specifications for the bolts in my 1988 Corolla. Where can I find this information?

A: The torque specifications for bolts/fasteners in any '88 - '97 Corolla engine can be found at:

http://www.autozone.com/servlet/UiBroker?ForwardPage=/az/cds/en_us/0900823d/80/16/a3/cd/0900823d8016a3cd.jsp

Brian R.
01-03-2006, 04:29 PM
Troubleshooting Camry Engine Mechanical Problems and Engine Performance Problems

Q: Where can I find a troubleshooting guide for my Camry engine?

A: A guide for troubleshooting Corolla engine mechanical problems and engine performance problems can be found at Autozone:

http://www.autozone.com/servlet/UiBroker?ForwardPage=/az/cds/en_us/0900823d/80/16/a3/cd/0900823d8016a3cd.jsp

Brian R.
03-08-2006, 05:21 PM
HOW TO CLEAN/DETAIL YOUR ENGINE

Here is a link on how to clean and detail your engine:

http://www.bettercarcare.com/articles.php?articleId=25

Brian R.
04-24-2006, 03:44 PM
GAS MILEAGE SAVERS TESTED

Thanks to Scholzee on the Blazer forum:

NEW YORK (CNN/Money) - Common gas-saving tips were put to the test recently by Edmunds.com, CNN.com's automotive content partner.

While most, it turned out, actually did save gas, some of the fuel-saving advice you commonly hear didn't make much difference at all.

Drivers took two different vehicles on the same 56-mile route eight times under various conditions. The vehicles, both Ford Motor Co. products, were a 2005 Ford Mustang GT and a Land Rover LR3 SE. Both have V-8 engines. The Mustang's EPA-estimated mileage is 15 in the city and 25 on the highway while the Land Rover's is 14 in the city and 18 on the highway. In ordinary driving, most vehicles usually get about 15 percent lower gas mileage than EPA estimates indicate.

Using cruise control
Drivers are often advised to use cruise control during long highway drives on level roads. The idea is that it prevents "speed creep" -- the tendency to gradually start going faster the longer you drive -- and cuts down on other unnecessary speed changes which can eat up gas.

In Edmunds.com's test, the Land Rover got almost 14 percent better mileage using cruise control set at 70 miles per hour rather than cruising at driver-controlled speeds between 65 and 75 miles per hour.

The Mustang got 4.5 percent better mileage with cruise control.

Verdict: It works

Roll up windows, use A/C
When driving on the highway, most of a vehicle's power is used simply to overcome aerodynamic drag. On the other hand, air conditioning also uses a lot of power.

Drivers are often told that keeping the windows rolled up, which significantly reduces drag, and using air conditioning actually results in better fuel economy than driving at high speeds with the windows open. In fact, CNN/Money has offered the same advice in a story we've run on our site.

In Edmunds.com's test, conducted at a steady 65 miles per hour, "windows down" or "A/C on" made virtually no difference in mileage.

The Mustang got 4.1 percent better mileage -- 30.7 mpg vs. 29.5 mpg -- with the windows down. The Land Rover got 1.6 percent better mileage with the windows down, a difference of just 0.3 miles per gallon.

Basically, the extra fuel used by the air conditioner is made up for in improved aerodynamics at high speeds. Your not really saving any fuel but, at least on the highway, the A/C isn't costing you appreciably either.

Verdict: No difference

Avoid hard acceleration
You've probably been told before that rushing up to stop lights and racing away from them wastes gas. Turns out it wastes a whole lot of gas, according to Edmunds.com's test.

Slowing zero-to-sixty times to 20 seconds instead of 10 to 15 seconds makes a big difference in mileage over the long term. Braking slowly and gently helps, too.

Driving the Land Rover gently resulted in a 35.4 percent increase in gas mileage while feather-footing the Mustang garnered a 27.1 percent mileage increase.

Verdict: Big difference

Properly inflate tires
Not having enough air in the tires can cause a number of problems, including a potentially dangerous blow-out. But it also reduces gas mileage.

In Edmunds.com's test, the mileage improvement with properly inflated tires, compared to slightly under-inflated ones, was slight but noticeable in the Land Rover but non-existent in the Mustang. Still, for safety's sake, keep enough air in your tires.

Verdict: Small impact on mileage

Brian R.
05-14-2006, 12:32 PM
TRANSMISSION FLUSH PROCEDURE
Q: How can I flush my transmission fluid without bringing it to a shop?

A: Here is one way posted by popeye08:

(from http://townhall-talk.edmunds.com/direct/view/.ee9950e/4658 )

You can actually change virtually all the fluid in the system using the following method. We have 5 Toyota's in the family, and I have done this to them all at least once.
It takes about an hour. Use whatever fluid is recommended on the dipstick, or in the manual. Our Camry's and Corolla's take Dexron, but the Celica takes Toyota Type IV fluid, available only from Toyota, at about $3.50/qt. Use what's recommended, or you'll be sorry. It's still less expensive than having it done.
1. Drop the pan*, drain the fluid, replace the filter, and reinstall the pan as you usually do.
2. Add 3 quarts of fluid. (or however many quarts of fluid are drained from the pan).
3. Remove the fluid return line at the transmission (usually the upper of the two lines), and place it into a one-gallon milk jug or similar semi-transparent container. You may want to place the container in a box with rags around it so that it doesn't spill.
4. Start the engine, and let about a quart or so of fluid get pumped into the milk jug (about 10-15 seconds).
5. Stop the engine, and add a quart of fluid to the transmission.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until you get new fluid out of the drain line.
You'll use about 8-10 quarts of fluid total, including the 3 you put in at the beginning, so you may need more than one milk jug.
7. Reinstall the drain line to the transmission, start the engine, and check for leaks.
8. With your foot on the brake, put the transmission in each gear, then into Park.
9.Let the car down and check the fluid level on the dipstick. Add fluid if needed to bring it up to the proper level.
10. Take it out for a test drive, and check the fluid level again.

(*One caveat is that it is not nessary to drop the pan. Removing and replacing the filter is not necessary. It is more or less just a screen that doesn't get plugged unless your clutch plates shread or something equally traumatic happens. Brian R.)

Brian R.
05-28-2006, 02:11 PM
Information About Auto Repair and Some Tricks About How Not to Get Ripped Off

Info thanks to Flatrater (http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/member.php?u=68974).

This is an article I found on the web. Now please read this as it impacts all of the car owners getting their cars worked on in a dealer or an outside shop. This is how it works use it to learn and to prevent getting ripped off by any shop.

"After working over 15 years in the auto repair industry, I have some insight I would like to share with everyone. The auto repair industry has changed quite a bit over the years as more complex automobiles have driven a new kind of mechanic into existence. Some of this has fostered smarter, better trained mechanics. However, it has developed the parts swapping business into enormous proportions. Part of the reason I changed careers was because I was so frustrated by working in such a crooked environment. Bad mechanics that lacked morals made the most money and honest ones lagged behind significantly. One key problem with the auto repair industry is the flat rate pay system which nearly all repair shops use. Basically it works like this: Labor time manuals are printed by the manufacturer for warranty repair time standards. These are times for a given job that are preset and are rounded to the nearest 1/10 of an hour. For instance, the replacement of an ignition module on a particular car may pay 1.1 hours in the warranty manual. That means that no matter how long it takes the mechanic to change that module, he still gets paid 1.1 hours. Aftermarket flat rate manuals are used for after warranty repairs. These manuals usually just take the warranty manual and multiply the time by 1.5. In some cases special times will be used instead. A mechanics flat rate time charge is usually referred to as a flag. For instance, the mechanic changing the module above will flag 1.1 hours for it under warranty or 1.7 hours retail.

Most mechanics are paid 100% commission based on what they flag. This is not always true but it is the overwhelming majority that are paid this way. For these mechanics, the motivation is to flag as many hours per day as possible. It is not impossible, or even that uncommon, for a mechanic to flag over 16 hours in an 8 hour day. The mechanic will make a given wage per flat rate hour. If he flags no time in a given day, he makes no money at all. Few shops guarantee a minimum income. There is no real maximum either. It is not unheard of for a fast, crooked mechanic to flag well over 80 hours in 5 day a week while working only a little over 8 hours per day. Thats not to say all mechanics that flag big hours are crooks though. The work load can be seasonal too. It was quite common to have a 50% or more pay fluctuation (flagged hours) from winter to summer.

The shop effectively makes a portion of what the mechanic flags so they too are interested in having the mechanic flag as many hours per day as possible. There is little motivation to be honest and quite a bit of motivation to rip off the customers. Most shops will not pay a mechanic to do a job twice. If a mechanic changed a water pump for instance, and the car came back with a leaking water pump gasket, the mechanic would have to replace the gasket and charge no time. The problem is that it is in the best interest of the shop and mechanic to blame the leak on something else that they can charge the customer for. Electrical and electronic parts typically have about a 30% to 60% no fault found rate on warranty returns. That means that about 30% to 40% were misdiagnosed in the field or the failure was not found during lab analysis.

Dealers/managers love those high speed guys because they make the company a ton of money. They figure what's a few blown out customers compared to a good profit. They're not going away, in fact, they are becoming all too common because that's what it's coming down too. Tech's haven't got a cost of living increase in years. When you ask a manager for a raise he says, "You want a raise, make more hours!" A few managers base their mechanics pay on hours produced. Techs working over 80 hours a week got a $2 per hour raise over a 40 hour tech. It is the exception to find a company giving a raise to the tech with the highest customer satisfaction.
There is not really a flat rate time for diagnosis in most cases. This means that a good mechanic that can troubleshoot a problem in 0.5 hours may charge significantly less than a clueless mechanic that spends 2 days swapping parts to figure it out. In the first case, an honest mechanic will flag 0.5 hours. Some may claim that since they are so smart, they will flag 0.8. In the second case, the same repair will cost the customer 2 full days plus any additional parts that were swapped as a guess. Again, there is very little incentive for the shop owner to intervene unless the customer complains.

Many mechanics will guess and swap parts until the problems are solved or the customer runs out of money. Only about one quarter of the mechanics out there can really troubleshoot problems accurately. Of those, only a portion can troubleshoot intermittent and more difficult problems. Most electrical and driveability problems on today's automobiles are intermittent. If you find a good mechanic you can trust, stick with him and tell all your friends.

On the other side of things, mechanics are often blamed for problems they did not cause. It seems all too often that a customer would claim the oil change we did caused their headlamps to flicker intermittently or some other bizarre problem that is in no way connected. Customers also seem to think that today's cars are smart and that there is some mystery machine hidden in the the shop that, when plugged into the car, will tell the mechanic everything that is wrong from low tire pressure to internal engine problems. This is far from accurate. Yes, modern cars do have sophisticated electronics on them and they do give the mechanic information such are fault codes and data values but they don't troubleshoot and they never will. On board software does have the capability of determining an out of range sensor or improper outputs. It can give the mechanic valuable information to help him narrow a problem down. It will never troubleshoot for him! An engine control for instance, which is generally the most sophisticated control on the vehicle, can only read values at the pins that connect it to the wiring harnesses. It can determine if a circuit is open or shorted or out of normal range but that is about it. It is up to the the well trained, smart mechanic to determine where the actual fault is. As I said earlier, most electrical and driveability problems are intermittent. That means that no matter what tests you run, chances are they will all pass. This is where data loggers and real smarts come into play.

It seems for the most part that bigger cities have more crooked shops than smaller ones. I think this is because a poor reputation in a small town will put you out of business whereas in a big city there are plenty of customers to go around. The strategy is usually to get all they can out of you when you do come if assuming you won't be back anyway. Also watch out for "mechanic of the month" award winners. These guys are usually the ones who flag the most hours to get a bonus on top of it. They are generally the most crooked as well.

Examples
I will now give a few real world examples of some of the things that go on in a shop. A new car dealer had a scam going that involved all the service personnel. They would bring new cars right in off the convoy truck and claim every one had alignment problems, driveability problems, and transmissions problems. Each of 3 mechanics would flag the maximum allowable time for work they supposedly did although no work was really performed on most of the vehicles. While these were all warranty claims, it is still fraud and the manufacturer was getting ripped off for more than a year. Some of these mechanics were being paid a 6 figure income by all the phony time they flagged. The dealership was finally caught and closed down but those same mechanics got jobs at other dealers. How would you like one of them working on your car?

A little old lady brought her car into a shop. A mechanic sold her over $2000 worth of parts and labor and the car was still not fixed. After all of that, it turned out there was a bad spark plug wire causing an intermittent misfire. The customer was still charged the full amount and none of the unnecessary parts were removed.

One mechanic was charging for piston ring replacements on certain vehicles under warranty on a routine basis. Few of the engines were ever taken apart. He would work at a dealer for a year or so until others would start to suspect and then go to another dealer to do it again. He rarely worked a full day but typically got paid over 12 hours per day.

During the 1980's, before detergent gasoline and deposit resistant injectors, the injectors would periodically need professional cleaning. The process typically pays about 1 hour but really only takes about 15 minutes of a mechanics time since he can connect the machine, start the process, and do other work while the injectors are being cleaned. Starting in the late 1980's, deposit resistant injectors were introduced and detergents were added to gasoline to prevent clogged injectors. Some mechanics will still try to sell you an injector clean as maintenance. There are cases where injectors may need to be cleaned to correct poor running but it is really not a maintenence item anymore. Another similar situation arises with the throttle body. Throttle bodies will sludge up, especially if you use natural (non-synthetic) oils. It was common in the 1980's to periodically clean the throttle body. In the early 1990's, new measures were taken to eliminate the need to clean the throttle body. In fact, some throttle bodies come pre-sludged with a special coating to allow proper idle speed. If you remove the coating, your idle may be too high. Some mechanics still sell throttle body cleaning as a maintenance item. It generally takes about 5 minutes and they will charge you an hour. In some cases it will actually cause an idle problem where one was not previously present.

Warning signs?
There are a few warning signs you can watch out for:

Does your mechanic claim you need more than one part to repair a given concern? If so it is questionable. While it is possible to have multiple failures contribute to a symptom, it is more likely a single part or condition is at fault. Occasionally you could have one component failure cause another component failure but that is also less likely. Always ask for a detailed explanation of what the root cause of the failure was. Beware of the parts swapper who wants to change every part that he thinks may be causing the problem. A typical example would be an EGR system. Many mechanics will claim that the EGR valve and sensor should both be changed if either is faulty. This is generally not true. There were cases in the 1980's when redesigned valves would not work without a redesigned sensor but generally either one or the other is the problem, not both. Sometimes the mechanic will recommend several parts but only 1 may be associated with your original concern. That is OK as long as he explains what all the parts are needed for. Often times he is trying to sell you maintenance work or has found worn parts that do need replacement. There should be a reason for every parts that is replaced.
Do they claim that you need "maintenance" work that does not show up in the factory maintenance guides? Like I mentioned above in the examples section, there are many maintenance procedures that are no longer needed but are still sold as required. The injector cleaning and throttle body cleaning are 2 examples. Most late model vehicles require very little maintenance compared to those of 10 years ago. Today's cars will never need a tune up. Most cars will need spark plugs replaced at 100k miles but no adjustments are ever needed. The timing and idle adjustments and other things that were part of a tune up are history. None of that is adjustable anymore. All you need is spark plugs, drive belts, brakes, oil, and filters for maintenance on most cars. Most wheel bearings are not serviceable anymore either. Always check your factory maintenance guides to see what is really required (that is if you can find a good one).
Are they trying to sell you brakes? In many cases poor driving habits will lead to premature brake wear. I have seen poor drivers destroy brake pads in less than 25k miles. However, upselling brakes is one of the most common scams some mechanics will try. Typically, you should be able to run your brakes down to about 15% remaining before you need to consider replacement. It is too common for some mechanics to try to sell brakes at 50%.
Are they spending too much troubleshooting time? This is really difficult to determine if you are getting a fair deal or not. I found that people would generally rather pay to swap out parts than to properly troubleshoot a problem. Generally, any hard failure, one that is always occurring and not intermittent, should take less than a couple hours to troubleshoot but even that is a rough estimate. Intermittent problems are the hard, and more common, ones. If the problem is only an inconvenience, such as a hesitation, lack of power, or intermittent problem with a non-essential electrical system, it is best to let it get bad enough that it can be easily duplicated before bringing it in to a mechanic. Things such as the yellow "check engine" or "service engine soon" light are best to wait until they are on constant as long as no other symptoms exist. It is not a bad idea to have a quick checkout of 1 hour or so to see if it is something simple but spending much more than that on a real intermittent problem can be futile. If it is a significant problem, like dying, then you had better get it fixed. This means determining the actual root cause of the problem, not just swapping parts until it seems better. In some cases if there is a significant problem that happens so rarely it can't be verified by the mechanic, educated guesses may be your best option. However, that decision should be made by you and your mechanic should have already checked TSB's and recalls to make sure it is not a known problem with a fix, and done a thorough inspection and basic testing to see if the root cause could be determined.
Are they selling you a tune-up? Vehicles built in the last 10 years or so do not need tune-ups. They do need spark plugs and filters but that is it. There are no adjustments or other maintenance required. You don't need to scan for codes either. Even on vehicles with adjustable timing, it no longer needs any adjustment unless you are having a problem. It will not vary a significant amount in the first 100k miles. If your vehicle is due for spark plugs, get them replaced. You need to change air and fuel filters too but that is about it. Again, consult your factory maintenance guides.What Can You Do?

Whenever possible, use a specialist. Today's cars are too complex for one person to be expert on everything. Generally the categories are: driveability, electrical (although driveability and electrical are about the same thing today), transmission, alignment, heavy line, light line, and maintenance. A good mechanic may have a couple categories he is strong in. It is important that a mechanic is well rounded and have knowledge of the complete vehicle. He could probably perform tasks other than his specialty but his specialty area should be by far his strong point and it should also be what he concentrates on. Compare it to a doctor. You do not want a skin cancer specialist doing heart bypasses. The same is true in the automotive field. Dealerships have the best tools and training and usually have enough mechanics to have specialists. Many times however, independent shops will be more honest.
Avoid the "mechanic of the month" award winners. These guys usually get there by flagging the most hours. That is a warning sign that he likely has the least morals and will try to get all he can out of you. That is not always the case but it is a warning sign to me. This can be a tough call. There are times when this guy is just fast and good.
Explain your problem in as much detail as possible. Don't just say "it runs bad". Explain exactly when it does it, how often it does it, when it started, how you are driving it when it happens, etc. Don't try to diagnose it! I used to have customers say things like "I think it's the carburetor" all the time. That does no good. I got the worst problem descriptions from men who wanted to appear knowledgeable rather than just describe the problem in plain language. Women were usually better about just describing the symptoms. If the problem is intermittent to any degree, say so. The absolute best thing to do is to take the mechanic for a ride in the car and show him exactly your concern. Make sure you are driving so you can show him exactly what your problem is, then let him try to duplicate it.
Use word-of-mouth to find an honest mechanic. Beware however that some people don't know a rip-off even after it has happened repeatedly to them. If they recommend someone, ask for details. Was more than one part required for the repair? If so, why? What other work was sold to them at the same time? Once you find an honest mechanic, stick with him. Get his name and request him every time. Tell all your friends. There are still many good, smart, honest mechanics out there and they deserve all the good business they can handle. This too may be difficult to determine word of mouth since some people think they are getting ripped off when they are not at all.
If you get ripped off, tell everyone you know, fight it with the shop owner, and make as much of a stink about it as you can. Don't let them get away with it. Report it to the Better Business Bureau. It is time to send a strong message to crooked mechanics and shops. Shut them down.Lacking knowledge of modern automobiles can really open you up to rip off artists. ASE certification does not mean you have competent techs, although it is a step in the right direction. I passed the heavy duty truck brake tests and I had no idea how the systems even worked and had never worked on one. I also passed the transmission tests with little knowledge or experience on transmissions. The tests are generally too easy and they give no indication of how honest the mechanic is. While ASE may attempt to better the repair industry, and they do help, they can't fix the root cause of the problems. I would, however, recommend ASE certified mechanics over those that are not. I want to make it clear however that there are some very sharp and honest mechanics out there who are underpaid for their ability. Sadly, it is the parts swappers and mechanics that do maintenance that really bring home the most money despite lower pay per flat rate hour in many cases than specialists. Training usually pays actual time at best. Some dealers don't even pay for training. The affect is that mechanics have less motivation to attend classes.

Most vehicle manufacturers now require at least some degree of training which is helping to drive the right behavior. Modern mechanics working on high-tech systems require a significantly higher skill set than mechanics of yesterday. Vehicles have become very complex. Most of the problems on these high-tech systems are intermittent making it even harder. Some manufacturers don't seem to understand what it takes to troubleshoot problems on these modern systems and believe that the mechanics out there simply don't have the aptitude to learn what they need to so they don't give the detail of information required to really understand these systems. This adds to the challenges a good mechanic faces. Modern vehicle troubleshooting requires many of the techniques a doctor would use to troubleshoot problems with humans. The real frustration comes when these vehicle doctors take home less money than a mechanic that just swaps parts. I would guess that only about 10% of the mechanics out there fit into the vehicle doctor category. Another 20% have some skills for troubleshooting. Many of the rest just swap parts and their skill is the speed at which they can change these parts. Often it is the doctors who really end up troubleshooting most of the problems for the others but he does not make the money for it. That should be improving as vehicles become more complex.

Modern vehicles are significantly more reliable than older ones. The newer the better. Modern vehicles require very little maintenance and very few repairs compared to those just 10 years earlier. Generally, any of the larger automakers make a better quality product today than the best cars of 10 years ago.

I blame most of the problems with the repair industry on the flat rate pay system. It can drive the wrong behavior throughout the organization. It gives clear incentive to go for speed and not accuracy. How would you like your pay cut in half because business was slow. Go home and tell your family that and see how it makes you feel. Upsell becomes easier to justify. It can be a very stressful living. Now work in those conditions and watch the guy next to you cheat the system and rake in the money with bonuses and praise from management to boot. Mechanics are no more dishonest than anyone else by nature, flat rate pay is to blame. "

Brian R.
07-01-2006, 11:49 PM
VVT vs VVT-i vs V-TEC

Read a technical article about these variable valve timing mechanisms here:

http://www.billzilla.org/vvtvtec.htm

Brian R.
07-05-2006, 08:53 PM
REMOVING '88-'97 LEFT HALF-SHAFT

Thanks to wraydeeoh for the following hint:

Q: It seems like this should be fairly easy, but I'm having a helluva time pulling the left side half shaft from the automatic transaxle. It's free and clear from the hub, but I can't seem to find a spot to pry the other end from the transaxle because it's recessed into the side of the transaxle. (Right side is easy to get at, by comparison.) Chilton says something about using a slidehammer and hub nut wrench to pull it (I don't get it).

A: Well, after sleepin' on the problem overnight..and getting a look at a Haynes manual photo, I finally got the driver's side half shaft to pop. It was a matter of getting the right pry bar (an edge wider than a screwdriver) wedged in the right spot on the shaft (had to turn the shaft to find the wide groove) at the right angle (I had to add a sliver of 1/2" wood to pry against) with the right leverage (it took a while get it right)...and then giving the pry bar a sharp, but not too hard, rap with a hammer.

Brian R.
07-05-2006, 09:00 PM
ENGINE VACUUM HOSE ROUTING DIAGRAM

Q: I'm having trouble isolating a vacuum problem. i have a 1986 toyota corolla, 4ac, soc, carb, 1.6L. i've checked the egr - good, replaced ALL vacuum lines, but car still misses at 20-25mph and 45-50mph. with egr vacuum line d/c'd the miss is gone. while trying to make sense of manual, i came across pic of egr and vacuum lines as they are connected in the pic - they don't match my cars egr vacuum lines although the pic is supposed to represent same. if anyone can direct me to an appropriate manual, or even better, if someone can send me a diagram it would be much apprieciated.

A: Give your VIN to a Toyota parts department and they should be able to order a vacuum routing diagram for you to stick under your car hood (if there isn't one already there). This is the best diagram to follow for your car. They have to have these available for cars who have to have their hoods replaced.

Brian R.
07-08-2006, 08:41 PM
FLUID SPECIFICATIONS

http://oregonstate.edu/~tongt/camry/Fluid_Specs.pdf

Brian R.
08-09-2006, 09:14 AM
HOW TO ADMINISTER SEAFOAM TO CLEAN YOUR ENGINE
(Thanks to Toysrme for the following discussion)

Seafoam (http://www.seafoamsales.com/motorTuneUp.htm) makes the world go round!
Not really, but at $5 a can it's a steal.
A can is 1 pint. http://www.seafoamsales.com/images/updates_whitecap.gif
You need 2 cans.

Pour 1/2 a can in the gas tank when you stop to fill up. (This ensures it mixes well)

Pour the other 1/2 in with fresh engine oil.
At the least you will notice that the engine will idle noticeably smoother.


Here's where most people get confused. Using it down the intake to clean the combustion chamber & parts of the head.


1) Drive the car around the block until it comes up to temp
2) Pour 1/3 of a can into a separate container (1/4 of a can for 4 cylinders)
3) Crank the engine
4) Pull the brake booster hose off & put your finger over the end so the car doesn't lean out & stall.

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v414/Toysrme/Answers/Seafoam-1.jpg

5) Drop the hose in the bottom of the container & let your finger off the end. If the engine doesn't stall out completely SHUT IT OFF ASAP.
The fluid will near instantly disappear & the engine should stall from being too rich to run, or being too lean from the hose letting air in afterwards. This will not break your engine. You're not using enough fluid to hydrolock it.
6) The engine should sit for 5 min.
7) Crank the engine & let it run until the smoke dies down
Normally you will get an ungodly amount of smoke.
8) As the smoke dies down, drive the car around. Be sure to make liberal use of 1st & 2nd gear to get to the higher portions of the RPM range a few times. That would be 5000-6850rpm..
You are not breaking your engine by running it at those rpm... All of the computers on all of the engines will cut the fuel to slow the RPM down before the engine is damaged. Yes, they are built for it...






Why someone would want to do this?
To clean gunk, sludge, & misc. heavy buildup out of the oil system. Pump, passages, bearings, walls.
To clean the fuel system.
To clean carbon out of the combustion chamber.

Now some people ask why you want to go to the trouble of cleaning carbon out of the engine.

Because as it builds up on the valves, they don't seal as well - causing poor compression while the leaking gas superheats parts of the engine that are not designed for it.

Because carbon in the combustion chamber is bad. mmmm kay? Any carbon becomes superheated. Superheated carbon / metal will cause the incoming fuel & air to ignite earlier than it should be. This (Detonation, pinging, kocking - all just names for pre-ignition) is very derailment to many aspects of engine life.

This is what a 3vz-fe looks like @ 95,000 miles.
(Forget the fluids, fluids spill look at the black carbon build-up)

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v414/Toysrme/Pistons.jpg


Here's what it looks like 6 months after the last 3 Seafoam treatments.

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v208/DNoel/Car%20Pictures/Piston6.jpg





Seafoam = Good. It's cheap & versatile, while working at least as good as anything else; regardless of the cost.

Brian R. note: GM Top Engine Cleaner is another useful additive for the above purpose.

Brian R.
08-12-2006, 04:46 PM
BUYING A CAR/TRUCK - WHAT TO LOOK FOR

Q: I'm about to purchase a mint vehicle, is there anything I should know about it before I purchase it. it only has 60k original miles. and great body.

A: Timing belt may be due to be changed at 60K (or 90K), an added expense.

Check the CV boots and see if they are torn - or grease has been thrown over the underbody in the area of the CV joints. Expensive repair.

Check the color of the ATF. If it's really dirty, it may have never been changed and you may have a potential problem there. If it's mud, don't buy it. If it's just reddish brown, get it flushed as soon as you can. Make sure it shifts smoothly, quietly, and without a jerk. May indicate a problem.

You should actually flush (not just drain & refill) all fluids ASAP after buying the car. Oil change, Transmission, Coolant, Brake lines, Powersteering fluid. Keep this expense in mind.

Pull the oil filler cap and see if there is bright shiny metal visible or are there extensive black deposits, indicating a lack of maintenance. If there is alot of black crap visible, don't buy it. Check for oil leaks under the engine and transmission.

Have the brakes checked and see if they need to be changed. That will be an added expense after you buy it. Tires are costlly also.

Make sure there is no smoke or steam coming out of the exhaust, either when just starting it or after it is hot. May be a sign of having been overheated or other serious problem. Don't buy it.

Check the coolant to make sure it is pretty red or green. No foam, bubbles in the overflow tank when the engine is running, or discoloration. If there are foam or bubbles - don't buy it.

Engine should run smoothly and quietly, no jerking, hesitating, or "Check Engine" light showing. Check recent emissions results if available.

Car should have no vibration at any speed. If there is any vibration, see if there is a bump in one of the tires. Anything else - don't buy it. If one of the tires has a bump, get it replaced as soon as possible. Take the cost of 4 tires into account if they are pretty used. You don't want one new tire on a set of badly used ones. On the test drive the vehicle should steer straight with no excessive side pull and the steering wheel should not be off center when driving on a straight road. Make allowances for an alignment and maybe front-end work if you find these indicators. Could be expensive.

Bounce the car hard, front and back separately. If it doesn't stop bouncing immediately, you may need to buy a set of struts. This can be expensive. As a general rule, there should be nothing wrong with the struts at 60K. If the car is a relatively new model, it may indicate that the car has been abused (or the speedometer has been rolled back). If the car is really old, the struts may be shot due to age alone. Mileage is not the only indicator of the expected strut condition. An old car doesn't have to have been abused to have bad struts at low mileage.

Along these lines: regardless of whether or not it has been driven hard, or sitting still, any car, regardless of make, can be expected to get around 10 years on the factory struts, springs, and rubber type mounts (i.e. strut mounts, bushings, engine mounts, etc.). And that it is fairly downhill quickly from there.

Check under the car for shiny welds or a lot of new parts that may indicate the car has been extensively fixed because of a collision. Also check the dashboard and see if it has a VIN in front of the driver, no VIN number indicates it has been replaced - check the VIN against the title. Don't buy it if anything is wrong.

Check the body panel fasteners. Example - Fender, Hood, Door, Trunk bolts, etc. Signs of chipped paint, disturbed mating surfaces, and tool usage may indicate that the vehicle has had body damage and been repaired. Run your fingers along the seams between the body panels. Wavyness or uneven spacing in the body panels indicates the presence of collision damage. Likewise, check the shock towers for welds, indicating repairs.

Check all the lights, turn signals, cruise control (may be designed to work only above a certain speed), and other electrical components for proper operation. Also check that the air conditioning blows cold air and the heater works.

If you don't know the car's history, check CARFAX.com for history. Only buy it if it has a squeeky clean history.


There are other cars available that don't have potential serious problems. Don't take chances if there are unknown costs after the purchase. Don't buy it if there is any doubt about it's condition. Have a mechanic look at it - it is worth the money.

Brian R.
09-17-2006, 08:04 PM
OBDII DTC CODES

A primer on OBDII DTC codes:
http://www.overboost.com/story.asp?id=1286&r=1

See also:
http://www.obd-codes.com/trouble_codes/index.php

Here are a list of generic and Toyota-specific DTC codes from http://www.iequus.com/assets/manuals/3100E.pdf

DTC Codes in BOLD have troubleshooting guide at the end of this post.

The above document also provided Manufacturer-specific DTC codes for Honda, General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler.

DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE DEFINITIONS
The following Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions lists represent the most complete information currently available. OBD II is an evolving system, and new codes and definitions will be added as the system matures. ALWAYS consult the vehicle’s service manual for code definitions not included in these lists.

The following code definition lists provide both Generic Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions and Manufacturer-Specific Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions for the following vehicles:

• OBD II Powertrain “GENERIC” (P0XXX) Diagnostic Trouble Codes. OBD II Generic Diagnostic Trouble Codes and their definitions apply to all makes and models of import and domestic vehicles that are “OBD II COMPLIANT”.

• OBD II Powertrain “MANUFACTURER SPECIFIC” (P1XXX) Diagnostic Trouble Codes. OBD II Manufacturer-Specific Diagnostic Trouble Codes and their definitions apply only to vehicles produced by the specific manufacturer (Ford, GM, Toyota etc.).

GENERIC OBD II CODE DEFINITIONS
P0010 "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Circuit (Bank 1)
P0011 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 1)
P0012 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 1)
P0013 "B" Camshaft Position - Actuator Circuit (Bank 1)
P0014 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 1)
P0015 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 1)
P0020 "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Circuit (Bank 2)
P0021 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 2)
P0022 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 2)
P0023 "B" Camshaft Position - Actuator Circuit (Bank 2)
P0024 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 2)
P0025 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 2)
P0030 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0031 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0032 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0033 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit
P0034 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit Low
P0035 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit High
P0036 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0037 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0038 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0042 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0043 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0044 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0050 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0051 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0052 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0056 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0057 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0058 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0062 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0063 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0064 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0065 Air Assisted Injector Control Range/Performance
P0066 Air Assisted Injector Control Circuit or Circuit Low
P0067 Air Assisted Injector Control Circuit High
P0070 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0071 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Range/Performance
P0072 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0073 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit High Input
P0074 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0075 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 1)
P0076 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0077 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0078 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 1)
P0079 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0080 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0081 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 2)
P0082 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0083 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 2)
P0084 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 2)
P0085 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0086 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 2)

P0100 Mass or Volume Air Flow Circuit Malfunction
P0101 Mass or Volume Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0102 Mass or Volume Circuit Low Input
P0103 Mass or Volume Circuit High Input
P0104 Mass or Volume Circuit Intermittent
P0105 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Malfunction
P0106 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0107 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Low Input
P0108 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit High Input
P0109 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Intermittent
P0110 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Malfunction
P0111 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0112 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Low Input
P0113 Intake Air Temperature Circuit High Input
P0114 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Intermittent
P0115 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Malfunction
P0116 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0117 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Low Input
P0118 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit High Input
P0119 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Intermittent
P0120 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Malfunction
P0121 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0122 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Low Input
P0123 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit High Input
P0124 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Intermittent
P0125 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Closed Loop Fuel Control
P0126 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Stable Operation
P0127 Intake Air Temperature Too High
P0128 Coolant Thermostat (Coolant Temperature Below Thermostat Regulating Temperature)
P0130 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0131 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0132 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0133 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0134 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0135 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0136 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0137 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0138 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0139 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0140 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0141 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0142 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0143 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0144 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0145 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0146 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0147 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0148 Fuel Delivery Error
P0149 Fuel Timing Error
P0150 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0151 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0152 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0153 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0154 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0155 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0156 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0157 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0158 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0159 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0160 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0161 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0162 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0163 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0164 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0165 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0166 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0167 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0168 Fuel Temperature Too High
P0169 Incorrect Fuel Composition
P0170 Fuel Trim Malfunction (Bank 1)
P0171 System too Lean (Bank 1)
P0172 System too Rich (Bank 1)
P0173 Fuel Trim Malfunction (Bank 2)
P0174 System too Lean (Bank 2)
P0175 System too Rich (Bank 2)
P0176 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0177 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0178 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0179 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit High Input
P0180 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Malfunction
P0181 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0182 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Low Input
P0183 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit High Input
P0184 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Intermittent
P0185 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Malfunction
P0186 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0187 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Low Input
P0188 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit High Input
P0189 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Intermittent
P0190 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0191 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0192 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0193 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0194 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0195 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Malfunction
P0196 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Range/Performance
P0197 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Low
P0198 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor High
P0199 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Intermittent

P0200 Injector Circuit Malfunction
P0201 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 1
P0202 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 2
P0203 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 3
P0204 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 4
P0205 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 5
P0206 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 6
P0207 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 7
P0208 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 8
P0209 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 9
P0210 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 10
P0211 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 11
P0212 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 12
P0213 Cold Start Injector 1 Malfunction
P0214 Cold Start Injector 2 Malfunction
P0215 Engine Shutoff Solenoid Malfunction
P0216 Injection Timing Control Circuit Malfunction
P0217 Engine Overtemp Condition
P0218 Transmission Over Temperature Condition
P0219 Engine Overspeed Condition
P0220 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Malfunction
P0221 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0222 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Low Input
P0223 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit High Input
P0224 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Intermittent
P0225 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Malfunction
P0226 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0227 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Low Input
P0228 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit High Input
P0229 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Intermittent
P0230 Fuel Pump Primary Circuit Malfunction
P0231 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit Low
P0232 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit High
P0233 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit Intermittent
P0234 Engine Overboost Condition
P0235 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit Malfunction
P0236 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0237 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit Low
P0238 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit High
P0239 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit Malfunction
P0240 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0241 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit Low
P0242 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit High
P0243 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A Malfunction
P0244 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A Range/Performance
P0245 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A Low
P0246 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A High
P0247 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B Malfunction
P0248 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B Range/Performance
P0249 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B Low
P0250 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B High
P0251 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Malfunction
P0252 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Range/Performance
P0253 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Low
P0254 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam High
P0255 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Intermitted
P0256 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Malfunction
P0257 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Range/Performance
P0258 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Low
P0259 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam High
P0260 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Intermitted
P0261 Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit Low
P0262 Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit High
P0263 Cylinder 1 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0264 Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit Low
P0265 Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit High
P0266 Cylinder 2 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0267 Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit Low
P0268 Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit High
P0269 Cylinder 3 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0270 Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit Low
P0271 Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit High
P0272 Cylinder 4 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0273 Cylinder 5 Injector Circuit Low
P0274 Cylinder 5 Injector Circuit High
P0275 Cylinder 5 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0276 Cylinder 6 Injector Circuit Low
P0277 Cylinder 6 Injector Circuit High
P0278 Cylinder 6 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0279 Cylinder 7 Injector Circuit Low
P0280 Cylinder 7 Injector Circuit High
P0281 Cylinder 7 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0282 Cylinder 8 Injector Circuit Low
P0283 Cylinder 8 Injector Circuit High
P0284 Cylinder 8 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0285 Cylinder 9 Injector Circuit Low
P0286 Cylinder 9 Injector Circuit High
P0287 Cylinder 9 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0288 Cylinder 10 Injector Circuit Low
P0289 Cylinder 10 Injector Circuit High
P0290 Cylinder 10 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0291 Cylinder 11 Injector Circuit Low
P0292 Cylinder 11 Injector Circuit High
P0293 Cylinder 11 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0294 Cylinder 12 Injector Circuit Low
P0295 Cylinder 12 Injector Circuit High
P0296 Cylinder 12 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0298 Engine Oil Over Temperature

P0300 Random/Multiple Cylinder Misfire Detected
P0301 Cylinder 1 Misfire Detected
P0302 Cylinder 2 Misfire Detected
P0303 Cylinder 3 Misfire Detected
P0304 Cylinder 4 Misfire Detected
P0305 Cylinder 5 Misfire Detected
P0306 Cylinder 6 Misfire Detected
P0307 Cylinder 7 Misfire Detected
P0308 Cylinder 8 Misfire Detected
P0309 Cylinder 9 Misfire Detected
P0310 Cylinder 10 Misfire Detected
P0311 Cylinder 11 Misfire Detected
P0312 Cylinder 12 Misfire Detected
P0313 Misfire Detected with Low Fuel
P0314 Single Cylinder Misfire (Cylinder not specified)
P0320 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Malfunction
P0321 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Range/Performance
P0322 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit No Signal
P0323 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Intermittent
P0324 Knock Control System Error
P0325 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0326 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0327 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Low Input (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0328 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit High Input (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0329 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Intermittent (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0330 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2)
P0331 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0332 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)
P0333 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit High Input (Bank 2)
P0334 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)
P0335 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Malfunction
P0336 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0337 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Low Input
P0338 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit High Input
P0339 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Intermittent
P0340 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0341 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0342 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0343 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit High Input
P0344 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0345 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit (Bank 2)
P0346 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0347 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)
P0348 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit High Input (Bank 2)
P0349 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)
P0350 Ignition Coil Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0351 Ignition Coil A Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0352 Ignition Coil B Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0353 Ignition Coil C Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0354 Ignition Coil D Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0355 Ignition Coil E Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0356 Ignition Coil F Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0357 Ignition Coil G Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0358 Ignition Coil H Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0359 Ignition Coil I Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0360 Ignition Coil J Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0361 Ignition Coil K Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0362 Ignition Coil L Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0365 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit (Bank 1)
P0366 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0367 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Low Input (Bank 1)
P0368 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit High Input (Bank 1)
P0369 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent (Bank 1)
P0370 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Malfunction
P0371 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Too Many Pulses
P0372 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Too Few Pulses
P0373 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Intermittent/ Erratic Pulses
P0374 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A No Pulses
P0375 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Malfunction
P0376 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Too Many Pulses
P0377 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Too Few Pulses
P0378 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Intermittent/ Erratic Pulses
P0379 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B No Pulses
P0380 Glow Plug/Heater Circuit Malfunction
P0381 Glow Plug/Heater Indicator Circuit Malfunction
P0382 Glow Plug/Heater Circuit "B" Malfunction
P0385 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Malfunction
P0386 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0387 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Low Input
P0388 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit High Input
P0389 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Intermittent
P0390 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit (Bank 2)
P0391 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0392 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)
P0393 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit High Input (Bank 2)
P0394 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)

P0400 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Malfunction
P0401 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Insufficient Detected
P0402 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Excessive Detected
P0403 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Circuit Malfunction
P0404 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Circuit Range/Performance
P0405 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor A Circuit Low
P0406 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor A Circuit High
P0407 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor B Circuit Low
P0408 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor B Circuit High
P0409 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "A" Circuit
P0410 Secondary Air Injection System Malfunction
P0411 Secondary Air Injection System Incorrect Flow Detected
P0412 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve A Circuit Malfunction
P0413 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve A Circuit Open
P0414 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve A Circuit Shorted
P0415 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve B Circuit Malfunction
P0416 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve B Circuit Open
P0417 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve B Circuit Shorted
P0418 Secondary Air Injection System Relay "A" Circuit Malfunction
P0419 Secondary Air Injection System Relay "B" Circuit Malfunction
P0420 Catalyst System Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0421 Warm Up Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0422 Main Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0423 Heated Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0424 Heated Catalyst Temperature Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0425 Catalyst Temperature Sensor (Bank 1)
P0426 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0427 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Low Input (Bank 1)
P0428 Catalyst Temperature Sensor High Input (Bank 1)
P0429 Catalyst Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1)
P0430 Catalyst System Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0431 Warm Up Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0432 Main Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0433 Heated Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0434 Heated Catalyst Temperature Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0435 Catalyst Temperature Sensor (Bank 2)
P0436 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0437 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Low Input (Bank 2)
P0438 Catalyst Temperature Sensor High Input (Bank 2)
P0439 Catalyst Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2)
P0440 Evaporative Emission Control System Malfunction
P0441 Evaporative Emission Control System Incorrect Purge Flow
P0442 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (small leak)
P0443 Evaporative Emission Control System Purge Control Valve Circuit Malfunction
P0444 Evaporative Emission Control System Purge Control Valve Circuit Open
P0445 Evaporative Emission Control System Purge Control Valve Circuit Shorted
P0446 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Control Circuit Malfunction
P0447 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Control Circuit Open
P0448 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Control Circuit Shorted
P0449 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Valve/Solenoid Circuit Malfunction
P0450 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Malfunction
P0451 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Range/Performance
P0452 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Low Input
P0453 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor High Input
P0454 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Intermittent
P0455 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (gross leak)
P0456 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (very small leak)
P0457 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (fuel cap loose/off)
P0460 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0461 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0462 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0463 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit High Input
P0464 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0465 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0466 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0467 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0468 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit High Input
P0469 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0470 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Malfunction
P0471 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Range/Performance
P0472 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Low
P0473 Exhaust Pressure Sensor High
P0474 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Intermittent
P0475 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Malfunction
P0476 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Range/Performance
P0477 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Low
P0478 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve High
P0479 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Intermittent
P0480 Cooling Fan 1 Control Circuit Malfunction
P0481 Cooling Fan 2 Control Circuit Malfunction
P0482 Cooling Fan 3 Control Circuit Malfunction
P0483 Cooling Fan Rationality Check Malfunction
P0484 Cooling Fan Circuit Over Current
P0485 Cooling Fan Power/Ground Circuit Malfunction
P0486 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "B" Circuit
P0487 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Throttle Position Control Circuit
P0488 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Throttle Position Control Range/Performance
P0491 Secondary Air Injection System (Bank 1)
P0492 Secondary Air Injection System (Bank 2)

P0500 Vehicle Speed Sensor Malfunction
P0501 Vehicle Speed Sensor Range/Performance
P0502 Vehicle Speed Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0503 Vehicle Speed Sensor Intermittent/Erratic/High
P0505 Idle Control System Malfunction
P0506 Idle Control System RPM Lower Than Expected
P0507 Idle Control System RPM Higher Than Expected
P0508 Idle Control System Circuit Low
P0509 Idle Control System Circuit High
P0510 Closed Throttle Position Switch Malfunction
P0512 Starter Request Circuit
P0513 Incorrect Immobilizer Key ("Immobilizer" pending SAE J1930 approval)
P0515 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0516 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit Low
P0517 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit High
P0520 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch Circuit Malfunction
P0521 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch Range/Performance
P0522 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch Low Voltage
P0523 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch High Voltage
P0524 Engine Oil Pressure Too Low
P0530 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0531 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0532 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0533 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0534 Air Conditioner Refrigerant Charge Loss
P0540 Intake Air Heater Circuit
P0541 Intake Air Heater Circuit Low
P0542 Intake Air Heater Circuit High
P0544 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit (Bank 1)
P0545 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0546 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0547 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit (Bank 2)
P0548 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0549 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit High (Bank 2)
P0550 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0551 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0552 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0553 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0554 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0560 System Voltage Malfunction
P0561 System Voltage Unstable
P0562 System Voltage Low
P0563 System Voltage High
P0564 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input Signal
P0565 Cruise Control On Signal Malfunction
P0566 Cruise Control Off Signal Malfunction
P0567 Cruise Control Resume Signal Malfunction
P0568 Cruise Control Set Signal Malfunction
P0569 Cruise Control Coast Signal Malfunction
P0570 Cruise Control Accel Signal Malfunction
P0571 Cruise Control/Brake Switch A Circuit Malfunction
P0572 Cruise Control/Brake Switch A Circuit Low
P0573 Cruise Control/Brake Switch A Circuit High
P0574 Cruise Control System - Vehicle Speed Too High
P0575 Cruise Control Input Circuit
P0576 Cruise Control Input Circuit Low
P0577 Cruise Control Input Circuit High
P0578-P0580 Reserved for Cruise Control Codes

P0600 Serial Communication Link Malfunction
P0601 Internal Control Module Memory Check Sum Error
P0602 Control Module Programming Error
P0603 Internal Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM) Error
P0604 Internal Control Module Random Access Memory (RAM) Error
P0605 Internal Control Module Read Only Memory (ROM) Error
P0606 PCM Processor Fault
P0607 Control Module Performance
P0608 Control Module VSS Output "A" Malfunction
P0609 Control Module VSS Output "B" Malfunction
P0610 Control Module Vehicle Options Error
P0615 Starter Relay Circuit
P0616 Starter Relay Circuit Low
P0617 Starter Relay Circuit High
P0618 Alternative Fuel Control Module KAM Error
P0619 Alternative Fuel Control Module RAM/ROM Error
P0620 Generator Control Circuit Malfunction
P0621 Generator Lamp "L" Control Circuit Malfunction
P0622 Generator Field "F" Control Circuit Malfunction
P0623 Generator Lamp Control Circuit
P0624 Fuel Cap Lamp Control Circuit
P0630 VIN Not Programmed or Mismatch - ECM/PCM
P0631 VIN Not Programmed or Mismatch - TCM
P0635 Power Steering Control Circuit
P0636 Power Steering Control Circuit Low
P0637 Power Steering Control Circuit High
P0638 Throttle Actuator Control Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0639 Throttle Actuator Control Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0640 Intake Air Heater Control Circuit
P0645 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit
P0646 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit Low
P0647 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit High
P0648 Immobilizer Lamp Control Circuit ("Immobilizer" pending SAE J1930 approval)
P0649 Speed Control Lamp Control Circuit
P0650 Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) Control Circuit Malfunction
P0654 Engine RPM Output Circuit Malfunction
P0655 Engine Hot Lamp Output Control Circuit Malfunction
P0656 Fuel Level Output Circuit Malfunction
P0660 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit (Bank 1)
P0661 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0662 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0663 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit (Bank 2)
P0664 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0665 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit High (Bank 2)

P0700 Transmission Control System Malfunction
P0701 Transmission Control System Range/Performance
P0702 Transmission Control System Electrical
P0703 Torque Converter/Brake Switch B Circuit Malfunction
P0704 Clutch Switch Input Circuit Malfunction
P0705 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Malfunction (PRNDL Input)
P0706 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0707 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0708 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit High Input
P0709 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0710 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0711 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0712 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0713 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit High Input
P0714 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0715 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0716 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0717 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0718 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0719 Torque Converter/Brake Switch B Circuit Low
P0720 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0721 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0722 Output Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0723 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0724 Torque Converter/Brake Switch B Circuit High
P0725 Engine Speed Input Circuit Malfunction
P0726 Engine Speed Input Circuit Range/Performance
P0727 Engine Speed Input Circuit No Signal
P0728 Engine Speed Input Circuit Intermittent
P0730 Incorrect Gear Ratio
P0731 Gear 1 Incorrect Ratio
P0732 Gear 2 Incorrect Ratio
P0733 Gear 3 Incorrect Ratio
P0734 Gear 4 Incorrect Ratio
P0735 Gear 5 Incorrect Ratio
P0736 Reverse Incorrect Ratio
P0737 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit
P0738 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit Low
P0739 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit High
P0740 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Malfunction
P0741 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Performance or Stuck Off
P0742 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Stuck On
P0743 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Electrical
P0744 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Intermittent
P0745 Pressure Control Solenoid Malfunction
P0746 Pressure Control Solenoid Performance or Stuck Off
P0747 Pressure Control Solenoid Stuck On
P0748 Pressure Control Solenoid Electrical
P0749 Pressure Control Solenoid Intermittent
P0750 Shift Solenoid A Malfunction
P0751 Shift Solenoid A Performance or Stuck Off
P0752 Shift Solenoid A Stuck On
P0753 Shift Solenoid A Electrical
P0754 Shift Solenoid A Intermittent
P0755 Shift Solenoid B Malfunction
P0756 Shift Solenoid B Performance or Stuck Off
P0757 Shift Solenoid B Stuck On
P0758 Shift Solenoid B Electrical
P0759 Shift Solenoid B Intermittent
P0760 Shift Solenoid C Malfunction
P0761 Shift Solenoid C Performance or Stuck Off
P0762 Shift Solenoid C Stuck On
P0763 Shift Solenoid C Electrical
P0764 Shift Solenoid C Intermittent
P0765 Shift Solenoid D Malfunction
P0766 Shift Solenoid D Performance or Stuck Off
P0767 Shift Solenoid D Stuck On
P0768 Shift Solenoid D Electrical
P0769 Shift Solenoid D Intermittent
P0770 Shift Solenoid E Malfunction
P0771 Shift Solenoid E Performance or Stuck Off
P0772 Shift Solenoid E Stuck On
P0773 Shift Solenoid E Electrical
P0774 Shift Solenoid E Intermittent
P0775 Pressure Control Solenoid "B"
P0776 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Performance or Stuck Off
P0777 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Stuck On
P0778 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Electrical
P0779 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Intermittent
P0780 Shift Malfunction
P0781 1-2 Shift Malfunction
P0782 2-3 Shift Malfunction
P0783 3-4 Shift Malfunction
P0784 4-5 Shift Malfunction
P0785 Shift/Timing Solenoid Malfunction
P0786 Shift/Timing Solenoid Range/Performance
P0787 Shift/Timing Solenoid Low
P0788 Shift/Timing Solenoid High
P0789 Shift/Timing Solenoid Intermittent
P0790 Normal/Performance Switch Circuit Malfunction
P0791 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit
P0792 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0793 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0794 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0795 Pressure Control Solenoid "C"
P0796 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Performance or Stuck Off
P0797 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Stuck On
P0798 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Electrical
P0799 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Intermittent

P0801 Reverse Inhibit Control Circuit Malfunction
P0803 1-4 Upshift (Skip Shift) Solenoid Control Circuit Malfunction
P0804 1-4 Upshift (Skip Shift) Lamp Control Circuit Malfunction
P0805 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit
P0806 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0807 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Low
P0808 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit High
P0809 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0810 Clutch Position Control Error
P0811 Excessive Clutch Slippage
P0812 Reverse Input Circuit
P0813 Reverse Output Circuit
P0814 Transmission Range Display Circuit
P0815 Upshift Switch Circuit
P0816 Downshift Switch Circuit
P0817 Starter Disable Circuit
P0818 Driveline Disconnect Switch Input Circuit
P0820 Gear Lever X-Y Position Sensor Circuit
P0821 Gear Lever X Position Circuit
P0822 Gear Lever Y Position Circuit
P0823 Gear Lever X Position Circuit Intermittent
P0824 Gear Lever Y Position Circuit Intermittent
P0825 Gear Lever Push-Pull Switch (Shift Anticipate)
P0830 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit
P0831 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit Low
P0832 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit High
P0833 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit
P0834 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit Low
P0835 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit High
P0836 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit
P0837 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit Range/Performance
P0838 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit Low
P0839 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit High
P0840 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit
P0841 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0842 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Low
P0843 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit High
P0844 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Intermittent
P0845 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit
P0846 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P0847 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Low
P0848 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit High
P0849 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Intermittent

TOYOTA-SPECIFIC OBD II CODE DEFINITIONS
P1100 BARO Sensor Circuit malfunction
P1120 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P1121 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Range/Performance Problem
P1125 Throttle Control Motor Circuit Malfunction
P1126 Magnetic Clutch Circuit Malfunction
P1127 ETCS Actuator Power Source Circuit Malfunction
P1128 Throttle Control Motor Lock Malfunction
P1129 Electric Throttle Control System Malfunction
P1130 Air-Fuel Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P1133 Air-Fuel Sensor Circuit Response Malfunction
P1135 Air-Fuel Sensor Heater Circuit Response Malfunction
P1150 A/F Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Malfunction
P1153 A./F Sensor Circuit Response Malfunction
P1155 A/F Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction

P1200 Fuel Pump Relay Circuit Malfunction

P1300 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 1
P1305 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 2 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1310 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 2 (Except 1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1310 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 3 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1315 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 4 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1320 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 5 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1325 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 6 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1330 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 7 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1335 No CKP Sensor Signal Engine Running
P1340 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 8 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1346 VVT Sensor /Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Problem (Bank 1)
P1349 VVT System Malfunction
P1351 VVT Sensor /Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Problem (Bank 2)

P1400 Sub-Throttle Position Sensor Malfunction
P1401 Sub-Throttle Position Sensor Range/Performance Problem
P1405 Turbo Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P1406 Turbo Pressure Sensor Range/Performance Problem
P1410 EGR Valve Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P1411 EGR Valve Position Sensor Circuit Ranger/Performance

P1500 Starter Signal Circuit Malfunction
P1510 Boost Pressure Control Circuit Malfunction
P1511 Boost Pressure Low Malfunction
P1512 Boost Pressure High Malfunction
P1520 Stop Lamp Switch Signal Malfunction
P1565 Cruise Control Main Switch Circuit Malfunction

P1600 ECM BATT Malfunction
P1605 Knock Control CPU Malfunction
P1630 Traction Control System Malfunction
P1633 ECM Malfunction ECTS Circuit
P1645 Body ECU Malfunction
P1652 IACV Control Circuit Malfunction
P1656 OCV Circuit Malfunction
P1658 Waste Gate Valve Control Circuit Malfunction
P1661 EGR Circuit Malfunction
P1662 EGR By-Pass Valve Control Circuit Malfunction
P1690 OCV Circuit Malfunction
P1692 OCV Open Malfunction
P1693 OCV Closed Malfunction

P1780 PNP Switch Malfunction

****************************

TROUBLESHOOTING SOME COMMON CODES

P0100
Mass or volume sensor or circuit

Possible Problems
MAF may be disconnected, or a wiring connection may be bad. MAF sensor may be faulty.

Reset the code and see if it comes back.
Verify that the Mass Air Flow Sensor wiring is connected properly and that there are no broken /frayed wires.
Unplug and reconnect the MAF wiring harness
Check the voltage of the MAF sensor (refer to a repair manual for vehicle specific information)
Replace the MAF sensor

P0101
Mass or volume Circuit Range/Performance Problem

Possible Problems
Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor or circuit. The PCM detects that the actual MAF sensor frequency signal is not within a predetermined range of the calculated MAF value for more than 4.0 seconds.

Reset the code and see if it comes back
Inspect for the following conditions:
An incorrectly routed harness--Inspect the harness of the MAF sensor in order to verify that it is not routed too close to the following components:
- The secondary ignition wires or coils
- Any solenoids
- Any relays
- Any motors
A low minimum air rate through the sensor bore may cause this DTC to set at idle or during deceleration. Inspect for any vacuum leaks downstream of the MAF sensor.
A wide open throttle (WOT) acceleration from a stop should cause the MAF sensor g/s display on the scan tool to increase rapidly. This increase should be from 6-12 g/s at idle to 230 g/s or more at the time of the 1-2 shift. If the increase is not observed, inspect for a restriction in the induction system or the exhaust system.
The barometric pressure (BARO) that is used in order to calculate the predicted MAF value is initially based on the MAP sensor at key ON.
When the engine is running the MAP sensor value is continually updated near WOT. A skewed MAP sensor will cause the calculated MAF value to be inaccurate. The value shown for the MAP sensor display varies with the altitude. With the ignition ON and the engine OFF, 103 kPa is the approximate value near sea level. This value will decrease by approximately 3 kPa for every 305 meters (1,000 feet) of altitude.
A high resistance on the ground circuit of the MAP sensor can cause this DTC to set.
Any loss of vacuum to the MAP sensor can cause this DTC to set.

P0102
Mass or volume Circuit Low Input
Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor or circuit. MAF circuit had lower than expected voltage (air flow).

Possible Problems
The MAF may be disconnected, or a wiring connection may be bad
The MAF may be dirty or otherwise contaminated (if you use an oiled air filter such as a K&N air filter, some of the oil may have made it's way onto the MAF sensor).
The MAF sensor may be faulty
The vehicle computer may be faulty (very rare)

reset the code and see if it comes back.
Verify that the Mass Air Flow Sensor wiring is connected properly and that there are no broken / frayed wires.
Inspect for any air leaks near the MAF sensor.
Take the MAF out and clean it using a spray cleaner such as brake cleaner or electrical contact cleaner. Be gentle with the sensor.
Check the voltage of the MAF sensor (refer to a repair manual for vehicle specific information)
Replace the MAF sensor.

P0103
Mass or Volume Circuit High Input.

Possible Problems
Mass Air Flow High (MAF) sensor or circuit. MAF circuit had higher than expected voltage (air flow).

The MAF may be disconnected, or a wiring connection may be bad
The MAF sensor may be damaged
The vehicle computer may be faulty (very rare)
reset the code and see if it comes back.
Verify that the Mass Air Flow Sensor wiring is connected properly and that there are no broken / frayed wires.
Inspect for any air leaks near the MAF sensor.
Take the MAF out and clean it using a spray cleaner such as brake cleaner or electrical contact cleaner. Be gentle with the sensor.
Check the voltage of the MAF sensor (refer to a repair manual for vehicle specific information)
Replace the MAF sensor.

P0104
Mass or Volume Circuit Intermittent

Possible Problems
Mass Air Flow High (MAF) sensor or circuit. MAF is producing incorrect air flow readings.

The mass air flow (MAF) circuit is incomplete (broken/frayed wire, etc.)
There is an air leak in the intake system

Reset the code and see if it comes back.
Verify that the Mass Air Flow Sensor wiring is connected properly and that there are no broken / frayed wires.
Inspect for any air leaks near the MAF sensor.
Check the voltage of the MAF sensor (refer to a repair manual for vehicle specific information)
Replace the MAF sensor.

P0105
The description of the expected voltages for the MAP sensor output (backprobing Terminal 2) in the Haynes manual is incorrect. The voltages listed are not the expected voltages, they are the voltage drops expected from the reference voltage.

With the MAP connector attached and the ignition on and the vacuum line disconnected, measure the reference voltage by backprobing terminals 2 and 1. Measure the voltages at these same connectors while applying different vacuums at the port. If your reference voltage without vacuum is 3 volts (for example), then you should see the following voltages at these vacuums:

3.94 in Hg 2.5-2.7 V [3.0 V (reference voltage) minus 0.5-0.3 V]
7.87 in Hg 2.1-2.3 V (3.0 minus 0.9-0.7 V)
11.81 in Hg 1.7-1.9 V (3.0 minus 1.3-1.1 V)
15.75 in Hg 1.3-1.5 V (3.0 minus 1.7-1.5 V)
19.69 in Hg 0.9-1.1 V (3.0 minus 2.1-1.9 V)

Although your MAP may not exactly match what is listed above, the trend should be the same. I don't think there is anything magical about these absolute numbers, it is having a smooth trend that is important. There is bound to be some variation.

P0123
Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit High Input

Possible Problems
Computer has detected that the TPS (throttle position sensor) is reporting too high a voltage.
Symptoms may include: Rough idle, High idle, Surging, or other symptoms may also be present

TPS not mounted securely
TPS circuit short to ground or another wire
Faulty TPS
Damaged computer (PCM)

If there are no symptoms, the simplest thing to do is to reset the code and see if it comes back.
If engine is stumbling or hesitating, carefully inspect all wiring and connectors that lead to the TPS. More than likely the problem is with the TPS wiring.
Check the voltage at the TPS (refer to a service manual for your vehicle for this specific information). If the voltage spikes or is too high (over 4.65 volts with key on, engine off), then that is indicative of a problem.
Carefully trace each wire from the TPS wiring harness to check for breaks, rubbing against other components, etc.

P0125
Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Closed Loop Fuel Control

Possible Problems
After the engine is warmed up, oxygen sensor output does not indicated RICH even once when conditions warrant and continue for at least 1.5 min.
Conditions: Engine speed 1,500 rpm or more, and speed 25-62 mph and throttle valve not completely closed.

Open or short in HO2 sensor circuit or oxygen sensor

or

Engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor indicates that the engine has not reached the required temperature level to enter closed-loop operation within a specified amount of time after starting the engine.

Insufficient warm up time
Low engine coolant level
Leaking or stuck open thermostat
Faulty coolant temperature sensor

P0132
O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 1)

Possible Problems
Front oxygen sensor on the driver's side reading is too high.

The oxygen sensor heater circuit is shorted out
The wiring to the sensor is broken / frayed (less likely)

Replace Front driver's side front oxygen sensor. <= Most likely

Other possibilities
Check for wiring problems (shorted, frayed wires)
Check the voltage of the oxygen sensor

P0133
O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 1)

Possible Problems
Front oxygen sensor on the driver's side voltage output is slower than 1 second rich to lean or lean to rich during idling after engine is warmed up (2 trip detection logic).

Bad HO2 sensor<= Most likely
Check and fix any exhaust leaks
Check for wiring problems (shorted, frayed wires)
Check the frequency and amplitude of the oxygen sensor (advanced)
Check for a deteriorating / contaminated oxygen sensor, replace if necessary
Check for inlet air leaks
Check the MAF sensor for proper operation
See also P0125 above.

P0139
O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 2)

Possible Problems
Rear oxygen sensor on the driver's side or the ECM does not adjust the air fuel ratio as expected to do so, or not adjusted as often as expected to do so once the engine is warmed or under normal engine use.

Faulty oxygen sensor
The wiring to the sensor is broken/frayed
There is an exhaust leak

Faulty HO2 Sensor 2 <= Most likely
Check and fix any exhaust leaks
Check for wiring problems (shorted, frayed wires)
Check the frequency and amplitude of the oxygen sensor (advanced)
Check for a deteriorating / contaminated oxygen sensor, replace if necessary
Check for inlet air leaks
Check the MAF sensor for proper operation

P0153
O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 1)

Possible Problems
Front oxygen sensor on the passenger's side voltage output is slower than 1 second rich to lean or lean to rich during idling after engine is warmed up (2 trip detection logic).

Bad HO2 sensor<= Most likely
Check and fix any exhaust leaks
Check for wiring problems (shorted, frayed wires)
Check the frequency and amplitude of the oxygen sensor (advanced)
Check for a deteriorating / contaminated oxygen sensor, replace if necessary
Check for inlet air leaks
Check the MAF sensor for proper operation
See also P0125 above.

P0159
O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 2)

Possible Problems
Rear oxygen sensor on the passenger side or the ECM is not adjusting the air fuel ratio as expected to do so, or not adjusted as often as expected to do so once the engine is warmed or under normal engine use.

Faulty oxygen sensor
Wiring to the sensor is broken/frayed
Exhaust leak

Replace rear passenger side oxygen sensor.
Check and fix any exhaust leaks
Check for wiring problems (shorted, frayed wires)
Check the frequency and amplitude of the oxygen sensor (advanced)
Check for a deteriorating/contaminated oxygen sensor, replace if necessary
Check for inlet air leaks
Check the MAF sensor for proper operation
See also P0125 above.

P0171
System too Lean (Bank 1)

Possible Problems
When the air fuel ratio feedback is stable after engine warming up, the fuel trim is considerably in error on the LEAN side (2 trip detection logic)

Air intake hose loose
Fuel line pressure low (may be from running out of gas)
Injector blockage
HO2 sensor malfuction
MAF meter malfunction
Engine coolant temperature sensor malfunction

Clean MAF meter with electronic circuit cleaner<= most likely
Fix vacuum/intake leak downstream of MAF meter
Inspect fuel lines for cracks, leaks, or pinches
Replace fuel filter
Check fuel pressure at the fuel rail
Check output of HO2 sensor
Check injector performance
Check ECT sensor

P0172
System too Rich (Bank 1)

Possible Problems
When the air fuel ratio feedback is stable after engine warming up, the fuel trim is considerably in error on the RICH side (2 trip detection logic)

Fuel line pressure high
Injector leak
HO2 sensor malfuction
MAF meter malfunction
Engine coolant temperature sensor malfunction

Clean MAF meter with electronic circuit cleaner<= most likely
Inspect all vacuum and PCV hoses, replace if necessary
Inspect fuel lines for cracks, leaks, or pinches
Check fuel pressure at the fuel rail
Check output of HO2 sensor
Check injector performance
Check ECT sensor
Check for adequate spark and ignition

P0174
System too Lean (Bank 2)
See P0171 for Bank 1

P0175
System too Rich (Bank 2)
See P0172 for Bank 1

P0325
No knock sensor 1 signal to ECM with engine speed 2,000 rpm or more.

Possible Problems
Open or short in knock sensor 1 circuit <= Most likely problem. Check sensor connector for good connection and check wire for damage. Wire is easily damaged when head is removed or similar repair work has been accomplished. Sensor can be tested with ohmmeter. There should be no continuity between the sensor terminal and the sensor body. Replace if there is continuity.
Knock sensor 1 loosness - tighten sensor
ECM

P0330
No knock sensor 2 signal to ECM with engine speed 2,000 rpm or more.

Possible Problems
Open or short in knock sensor 2 circuit <= Most likely problem.Check sensor connector for good connection and check wire for damage. Wire is easily damaged when head is removed or similar repair work has been accomplished. Sensor can be tested with ohmmeter. There should be no continuity between the sensor terminal and the sensor body. Replace if there is continuity.
Knock sensor 2 loosness - tighten sensor
ECM

P0401
After the engine is warmed up, the intake manifold absolute pressure is larger than the value calculated by the ECM while the EGR system is ON (2 trip detection logic).

Possible Problems
EGR valve stuck closed <= Most common Clean EGR valve
EGR Vacuum Switching Valve (VSV)
Open or short in VSV circuit for EGR
EGR valve position sensor open or short circuit
Vacuum or EGR hose disconnected
EGR valve position sensor
Manifold absolute pressure sensor malfunction <=See P0105 above for testing MAP sensor
ECM

P0402
After the engine is warmed up, conditions (a) and (b) continue.

(a) The intake manifold absolute pressure is larger than the value calculated by the ECM while the EGR system is ON.

(b) Misfiring is detected during idling (2 trip detection logic).

Possible Problems
EGR valve stuck open <= Most common Clean EGR valve
Vacuum or EGR hose is connected to wrong post
Manifold absolute pressure sensor malfunction
ECM

P0440
The fuel tank pressure is atmospheric pressure after the vehicle is driven for 20 min (2 trip detection logic).


TSB for 5S-FE
EG013-02 '98 and '99 Camry and Solara




"Under certain driving conditions, some 1998 - 1999 model year Camry and Solara vehicles may exhibit a M.I.L. "ON" with DTCs P0440, P0441 and P0446 stored due to an inoperative Vapor Pressure Sensor







3 way Vacuum Switching Valve (VSV). An improved Vapor Pressure Sensor VSV has been developed to correct this condition."

TSB for 5S-FE 1998







EG003-98

Repair Procedure

A. Diagnostics for PO441:

1. Remove Vacuum Hoses between EVAP VSVand Charcoal Canister and discard.



2. If there is a metal vapor pipe between


EVAP VSV and Charcoal Canister, clean inside of vaporpipe
3. Replace EVAP VSV and Charcoal Canister assembly with new parts.
4. Install new vacuum hoses between EVAP VSV and Charcoal Canister.
B. Diagnostics for P0446:
1. Inspect vacuum hoses and pipes between EVAP (Purge) VSV and Charcoal Canister for leaks.
2. Replace Vapor Pressure VSV and Canister.
NOTE :When performing diagnostics for an occurrence of a MIL "ON" condition, Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) P0441 may be result of debris in Evaporative Emission Control System. This may cause blockage of a vapor line, or a stuck VSV, as described in troubleshooting area of Repair Manual.


Possible Problems
Fuel tank cap incorrectly installed <= Most common
Fuel tank cap cracked or damaged (Toyota part only)
Bad vapor pressure sensor/circuit
Vacuum hose cracked, holed, blocked, damaged or disconnected
Hose or tube cracked, holed, damaged, or loose
Fuel tank/filler neck cracked, holed, or damaged
Charcoal canister cracked, holed, or damaged (collision)

In above description, check hoses between vapor pressur sensor and VSV for vapor pressure sensor and charcoal canister. Also, hose between charcoal canister and fuel tank.

P0441 and/or P0446
Possible Problems
Open or short in VSV circuit for vapor pressure sensor
VSV for vapor pressure sensor
Open or short in vapor pressure sensor circuit
Vapor pressure sensor
Open or short in VSV circuit for EVAP
VSV for EVAP
Vacuum hose cracks, hole, blocked, damaged or disconnected
Charcoal canister cracks, hole, or damaged

(P0446 is not normally associated with a loose or non-sealing gas cap. A loose or non-sealing gas cap triggers P0440)

1. Check the VSV connector for EVAP, VSV connector for vapor pressure sensor and vapor pressure sensor connector for looseness and disconnection

2. Check the vacuum hose between intake manifold and VSV for EVAP, VSV for EVAP and charcoal canister, charcoal canister and VSV for vapor pressure sensor, and VSV for vapor pressure sensor and vapor pressure sensor. Check these hoses for correct connection, looseness, cracks, holes, damage, and blockage.

3. Check voltage between terminals VC and E2 of ECM connector (4.5-5.5 V). (replace ECM if faulty)

4. Check voltages between terminals PTNK and E2 of ECM connector while applying vacuum to vapor pressure sensor (2.9-3.7 V).

If faulty, check for open and short in harness and connector between vapor pressure sensor and ECM. If ok at this point, replace vapor pressure sensor.

If voltage above is ok, Check VSV for EVAP. When ECM terminal EVP is grounded (ignition "ON"), Air should flow in pipe E (inboard on tube) on VSV and out F (outboard on tube) on VSV (Don't use high pressure air for this test). When EVP is not grounded, air does not flow in E and out F.

5. Check operation of VSV for EVAP. Remove VSV from engine. Check that there is continuity between the two terminals (30-34 ohms). If there is no continuity, replace VSV for EVAP.

Check that there is no continuity between either terminal and body. If there is continuity, replace VSV for EVAP.

Check that air does not flow from inner port (E) to outboard port (F).

Check that air flows from port E to F when you apply battery voltage across terminals. If no air flows, replace VSV for EVAP.

6. Check the vacuum hose between intake manifold and VSV for EVAP, and VSV for EVAP and charcoal canister. Check as above.

7. Check for open or short in harness and connector between EFI main-relay and VSV for EVAP and ECM. If faulty, repair or replace harness or connector. If ok, check and replace ECM.

8. Check VSV for vapor pressure sensor. When ECM terminal TPC is grounded (ignition "ON"), Air should flow in pipe E (inboard on tube) on VSV and out F (outboard on tube) on VSV. When TPC is not grounded, air flows out G (outside of connector).

If ok, check and replace charcoal canister.

If not functioning correctly, check function of VSV for vapor pressure sensor. Remove from engine.
Check that there is continuity between the terminals (33-39 ohms). Replace the VSV if there is no continuity.

Check that air flows from port E (inboard in tube) to port G (side of connector).

Check that air flows from port E to port F (outboard in tube) when battery voltage is applied across terminals. Replace VSV if function is incorrect.

9. If good, Check the vacuum hose between charcoal canister and VSV for vapor pressure sensor, and vapor pressure sensor and VSV for vapor pressure sensor - check as above.

11. Check for open and short in harness and connector between EFI main replay and VSV for vapor pressure sensor and ECM.

P0770 Shift Solenoid E Malfunction

Solenoid E (SL) is the torque converter lock-up solenoid. If the torque converter is a little slow locking up, it will set this code. May only be a one-time thing owing to a small particle of something getting jammed in the solenoid. The code may disappear by itself.

If it doesn't right away, check out the color of your tranny fluid. If it is pretty much red or brown and smells ok, then flush the tranny and see if that gets rid of the code. If not, pull out some fluid and add a bottle of Seafoam Trans Tune and run it for 1 or 2k miles. Then flush the transmission again. Check if the code is gone.

If this problem persists, I've been told you'll have to replace the E-solenoid.

There is a Service Bulleting (EG006-00) issued for '00 Siennas on this problem. They get a new torque converter to fix the problem permanently.

The following discussion was submitted by csaxon:

The ECM uses signals from throttle position sensor, airflow meter and crankshaft position sensor to monitor engagement of Torque Converter Clutch (TCC).

The ECM compares engagement condition of TCC with lock-up schedule in memory to detect MECHANICAL trouble of lock-up solenoid, valve body and torque converter. A P0700 trouble code is set when TCC lock-up does not occur during appropriate speed, or lock-up does not release at appropriate speed.

Possible causes are:
* Solenoid is stuck open or closed.
* Valve body clogged or valve stuck.
* TCC malfunction.

There are simple electrical tests to check the solenoid and plunger but the transmission pan must be removed to gain access.

As Brian suggests, if you haven't had your system flushed or changed in awhile it may help but I'm not sure that's cheaper than actually removing the pan and checking the solenoid.

The Toyota service tech can check the system without pan removal with his analyzer.

P1780 PNP Switch Malfunction

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=504073

Brian R.
09-17-2006, 08:05 PM
ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS TO R12 AND R134A

Here is an interesting article on alternative refrigerants:

A/C: New Alternative Refrigerants

by Larry Carley

If you have bought any R-12 refrigerant lately, you know it is pretty pricey stuff. Last year, the price peaked at about $20 a pound ($600 for a 30 lb. tank) in some areas of the country. This year some predict the price could shoot as high as $30 to $33 per lb. ($1000 per tank!) if we get a long hot summer. Consequently, people are searching for less expensive alternatives to recharge their A/C systems.

NO DROP-INS
Though some alternative refrigerants are being marketed as "drop-in" replacements for R-12, there is really no such thing. According to the EPA, the concept of a "drop-in" replacement for R-12 is a marketing myth. Such words imply a substitute refrigerant will perform the same as R-12 under all conditions, that it will require no modifications to the A/C system or changes in lubricant, and that it is compatible with R-12 and can be added to a system that still contains R-12. Federal law prohibits the topping off A/C systems with refrigerants that are different from what is in the system—unless all of the old refrigerant is first removed so the system can be converted to a new refrigerant.

The truth is no substitute refrigerant meets all of these requirements. There are, however, a number of alternative refrigerants that have been reviewed by the EPA and have been found to meet the EPA’s SNAP (Significant New Alternatives Policy) criteria for environmental acceptability and usage. The SNAP rules prohibit flammable refrigerants or ones that contain ozone-damaging CFCs.

But just because a refrigerant meets the EPA's usage criteria does not mean it is endorsed or "approved" by the EPA, or that it will perform well as a refrigerant.

THE ALTERNATIVES
There are currently seven alternative refrigerants from which to choose. One is R-134a, which is the only alternative currently approved by all vehicle manufacturers worldwide for new vehicles as well as for converting older R-12 applications. The OEMS say R-134a can perform well in most R-12 systems provided the proper retrofit procedures are followed. The also recommend R-134a because it is a single component refrigerant, unlike most of the alternatives which are blends of two to four ingredients.

The OEMS do not like blends because blends can undergo "fractionation." This is when the individual ingredients in a blend separate for various reasons. Fractionation can be caused by chemical differences between the refrigerants (lighter and heavier elements don’t want to stay mixed), different rates of leakage through seals and hoses (smaller molecules leak at a higher rate than larger ones), and different rates of absorption by the compressor oil and desiccant. Fractionation is a concern because it can change the overall composition of the blend once it is in use, which can affect the performance characteristics of the refrigerant. Fractionation also makes it difficult to recycle a blended refrigerant because what comes out of the system may not be the same mix that went into the system.

The OEMS also say limiting the alternatives to one (R-134a) simplifies things, reduces the risk of cross-contamination and eliminates the need for multiple recovery machines (EPA rules require a separate dedicated recovery only or recovery/recycling machine for each type of refrigerant serviced).

BLENDS
Alternative refrigerants that have been found acceptable for automotive applications or are currently being reviewed by the EPA include the following blends:

Free Zone (RB-276). Supplied by Refrigerant Gases, this blend contains 79% R-134a, 19% HCFC-142b and 2% lubricant.
Freeze 12. Supplied by Technical Chemical, this blend contains 80% R-134a and 20% HCFC-142b.
FRIGC (FR-12). Made by Intermagnetics General and marketed by Pennzoil, this blend contains 59% R-134a, 39% HCFC-124 and 2% butane.
GHG-X4 (Autofrost & McCool Chill-It). This blend is supplied by Peoples Welding Supply and contains 51% R-22, 28.5% HCFC-124, 16.5% HCFC-142b and 4% isobutane (R-600a).
GHG-HP. Also supplied by Peoples Welding Supply, this blend contains 65% R-22, 31% HCFC-142b and 4% isobutane (R-600a).
Hot Shot\Kar Kool. Supplied by ICOR, this blend contains 50% R-22, 39% HCFC-124, 9.5% HCFC-142b and 1.5% isobutane (R-600a).The suppliers of the alternative blends say their products typically cool better than straight R-134a in systems designed for R-12, and do not require changing the compressor oil or desiccant in some cases. Changing the desiccant to XH-7 is usually recommended if an R-12 system is converted to R-134a. The desiccant should also be replaced if a blend contains R-22 because R-22 is not compatible with XH-5 or XH-7 desiccant. The recommended desiccant in this case would be XH-9.

The suppliers of the alternative blends also insist the fractionation problem is exaggerated and do not foresee any major problems with recovering and recycling their products (recycling blends is currently illegal, but the EPA is reviewing its feasibility).

Are blends establishing a niche in the marketplace? One supplier of these products said they sold over a million pounds of their alternative refrigerant last year alone! Most are predicting increased sales as the price of R-12 continues to rise and stockpiles dwindle.

MACS FIELD STUDY
A field study of various refrigerants conducted by the Mobile Air Conditioning Society (MACS) compared the cooling performance of R-12, R-134a and three blended refrigerants (Freeze 12, FRIGC and McCool Chill-It). The study found that all the alternative refrigerants (including R-134a) did not cool as well as R-12 in the vehicles tested (a 1990 Pontiac Grand Am and a 1987 Honda Accord). But the study did find that the blends outperformed R-134a in the Honda (but not the Pontiac). The increase in A/C outlet temperature with the different refrigerants ranged from less than a degree to almost 11 degrees.

ILLEGAL REFRIGERANTS
Another class of alternative refrigerants has also appeared on the scene: illegal refrigerants. Some products that have been introduced (OZ-12, HC-12a, R-176 and R-405a) do not meet the EPA’s criteria for environmental acceptability or safety. Flammable refrigerants such as OZ-12 and HC-12a that contain large quantities of hydrocarbons (propane, butane, isobutane, etc.) have been declared illegal for use in mobile A/C applications, but are still turning up in vehicle systems anyway because of their cheap price.
Flammable refrigerants pose a significant danger to a vehicle’s occupants should a leak occur. A spark from a cigarette or a switch can ignite the leaking refrigerant causing an explosion and turning the vehicle’s interior into an inferno. It only takes about four ounces of a flammable hydrocarbon refrigerant such as propane or butane to create an explosive mixture inside a typical automobile passenger compartment.

Frontal collisions can also release the refrigerant if the condenser is damaged, which could result in a severe underhood fire causing extensive damage to the vehicle.

There’s also a risk to service technicians who might encounter leaks while servicing a vehicle or operating recovery/recycling equipment.

Merely topping off an A/C system with a flammable hydrocarbon can make the entire charge of refrigerant flammable if the amount added exceeds a certain percentage: 10% in the case of an R-12 system and only 5% with R-134a! That’s only three or four ounces of hydrocarbon depending on the overall capacity of the system.

Flammable refrigerants are used in some stationary applications as well as truck trailer refrigeration units because there’s less risk of leakage or fire. Also, the amount of refrigerant is typically much less, only five or six ounces total instead of several pounds.

BOOTLEGGERS & COUNTERFEITERS
Less dangerous but equally illegal is bootleg R-12 that’s being smuggled into the U.S. from offshore. Though most of the industrialized nations have stopped manufacturing R-12 (production ended here December 31, 1995), R-12 is still being made in some Third World countries including Mexico. Some of this product is finding its way past customs in mislabeled containers or concealed in various ways. The EPA warns that much of the refrigerant it has confiscated thus far is of poor quality, contaminated by air, moisture, R-22 and other substances. The EPA has worked with customs authorities and the FBI to make a number of arrests. Fines for violating the clean air rules can run up to $25,000 per instance.

Counterfeiting branded product is another scam that’s being perpetrated to turn a fast buck in today’s market. Cylinders of counterfeit Allied Signal Genetron R-12 have reportedly been turning up in various parts of the country. The cylinders do not contain R-12 but some "unknown" refrigerant. Allied Signal says the counterfeit boxes do not have cut-outs where lot numbers strapped on cylinders would appear and there are no bar codes or white painted stripes on the sides. The number "Q 1167" may also appear on the bottom of the packaging. The cylinders themselves may be marked with a pressure-sensitive decal whereas the genuine product has markings printed on the cylinder itself.

CONTAMINATED REFRIGERANT
The high price of R-12 has also lead to an increase in incidences of virgin R-12 being adulterated with other less expensive refrigerants. Most technicians assume a tank of virgin refrigerant is pure, but some are finding that’s not the case. Some supplies say they now test every single tank of refrigerant to make sure it contains the proper refrigerant and that the quality of the refrigerant meets specifications.

The primary threat of contamination, though, is that of accidentally cross-contaminating refrigerants when vehicles are professionally serviced. Because the law requires all refrigerants to be recovered, there’s a potential risk of contaminating when recovery and recycling equipment is connected to a vehicle. The problem is compounded, many say, by the proliferation of alternative and illegal refrigerants.

The dangers of cross-contamination are the effects it can have on cooling performance and component reliability. R-12 and R-134a are not compatible refrigerants because R-134a will not mix with and circulate mineral-based compressor oil (which may lead to compressor failure). Nor is R-134a compatible with the moisture-absorbing desiccant XH-5, which is used in many R-12 systems.

Intermixing refrigerants can also raise compressor head pressures dangerously. Adding R-22 (which is used in many stationary A/C systems but is not designed for use in mobile A/C applications) to an R-12 or R-134a system may raise head pressures to the point where it causes the compressor to fail. Straight R-22 can cause extremely high discharge pressure readings (up to 400 or 500 psi!) when underhood temperatures are high. R-22 is also not compatible with XH-5 and XH-7 desiccants used in most mobile A/C systems.

R-134a also requires its own special type of oil: either a polyakylene (PAG) oil or a polyol ester (POE) oil. The OEMS mostly specify a variety of different PAG oils because some compressors require a heavier or lighter viscosity oil for proper lubrication (though General Motors does specify only a single grade of PAG oil for most service applications). The aftermarket generally favors POE oil because POE is compatible with both R-12 and R-134a and unlike PAG oil it will mix with mineral oil. Mineral oil, as a rule, should still be used in older R-12 systems.

DECISIONS, DECISIONS
The use of alternative refrigerants such as blends will likely grow because they’re a cheap alternative to R-12. The OEMs don’t like it, but the EPA has said it will let the market decide the fate of alternative blends. Consequently, you need to be aware of what’s potentially out there and be prepared to handle (or not handle) blends.

To minimize the risk of cross-contamination, the EPA requires that each type of refrigerant (including blends) have unique service fittings (permanently installed) and proper labeling. The EPA also requires shops to use a separate dedicated recovery/recycling machine for R-12 and R-134a, plus one or more additional recovery only machines for any other refrigerants that might be used. For this reason, many shops may choose to avoid blends. But fleets may find blends to be an acceptable alternative if they don’t want to convert (or it would cost too much to convert) their vehicles over to R-134a.

To protect recycling equipment and customer’s vehicles against cross-contamination or bad refrigerant, service facilities should use a refrigerant identifier to check every vehicle before it is serviced. An identifier can also help the shop monitor the quality of their recycled refrigerant as well as any virgin refrigerant that might be purchased.

Most identifiers that are available today can only tell you if the system contains pure R-12, R-134a, hydrocarbons, or R-22 or an "unknown" refrigerant. Each blend has its own characteristic finger print, but because of the fractionation problem getting a precise fix on exactly what’s in a vehicle isn’t as easy as it sounds.

The best advise is this: if you don’t know what type of refrigerant is in your vehicle, take it to a shop that has a refrigerant identifier and have it checked. Intermixing different refrigerants can cause cooling problems as well as shorten the life of the compressor.

CONTAMINATION ALERT!
As the use of alternative refrigerants grows, so does the risk of cross-contamination. A recent survey by the Florida EPA revealed some startling results. When they tested the refrigerant recovery tanks in about 100 shops, here’s what they found:

Thirty-eight percent of the recovery tanks showed some type of contamination! Independent repair garages and service shops had the lowest rate of contamination, but it was still 32% (nearly one out of three). Used car dealers were the worst, with 71% of their recovery tanks (almost three out of four) showing signs of contamination.

Air contamination was the worst problem, being present in 22% of the tanks tested overall. But cross-contamination between R-12 and R-134a was also found in 15% of the tanks. The most cross-contamination (29%) was discovered in used car dealers.

RETROFIT OR NOT?
The OEMS say R-12 should be used in all R-12 systems as long as it is available because R-12 provides the best cooling performance in these applications. They say there’s no need to retrofit to R-134a or to use any other refrigerant as long as the system is cooling normally. But if the system requires major repairs such as a new compressor or condenser, the cost to retrofit may be justified.

The OEMS say switching an older R-12 system to R-134a does not require a lot of modifications in many instances. Changing the accumulator or receiver-dryer, removing the old compressor oil and replacing the high pressure switch is generally all that’s needed—a job that can usually be done for less than $200. For more information, consider purchasing the R134A RETROFIT GUIDE (http://www.carleysoftware.com/retrofit.htm)on this website.

OEM as well as aftermarket retrofit kits are now available for such conversions. But some vehicles (namely those with viton compressor seals, compressors that can’t handle higher head pressures or have small condensers) aren’t so easy to convert. Changing some of these vehicles over to R-134a requires extensive and expensive modifications. So for these applications there are no kits or easy answers—other than to switch to a blend refrigerant if R-12 becomes too expensive or is unavailable.

Brian R.
09-22-2006, 10:20 PM
Q: Is there anyone here who can help me with my engine conversion/modification. I own a 94 corolla with 4afe engine is there a way I can increase its power, I know that its possible to swap it with a 4age engine but i'm not into whole engine swapping i want to keep my stock.

Is it possible to swap my 16V to make it a 20V or swap the heads to a ge head?

Is it advisable to add a turbine system or any other mods?

Do i have to change my ECU if i have the head swap?

A: 4A-FE Head swap:
The head swap is a relatively simple way to increase horsepower in 6th generation ST's with the 4A-FE engine. To put this project simply: you are taking the stock car removing the FE head and replacing it with a supercharged -GZE or -GE heads (more performance-oriented heads). As the 4A-FE is basically an OEM version of a stoked 4A-GE the block is almost identical to that of a 4Ag. The supercharged heads are fairly cheap and can be found in the US in the 89 and newer supercharged MR-2s. The NA heads are found in the Corolla GT-S and elsewhere. The GE head shouldn't give you an increase that would really benefit the cost IMHO. This is an option for someone making an all-motor engine, something outside the scope of this topic, so I will focus for the most part on the supercharged (-GZE) head.

The way I figure it- a very conservative figure for power should be at bare minimum a 30HP increase over the stock 4A-FE. (looking at the difference between a stock 4A-FE at 105HP and the 4A-GZE at 135HP in 1989). If you do this swap right you should see far more power available. You already have liters of displacement in the 4A block that should increase both HP and Torque. The Supercharger pulley upgrade for the supercharger were quite common back in the day and may still be available for less than $100US from either HKS or Toms. Also, if you opt for a programmable aftermarket ECU you have the opportunity to create a far more aggressive fuel curve for the hybrid than the stock 4AGZE ECU will allow. Finally, more modern versions of the 4AGZE released overseas come stock with 180HP (without VVT). This is probably attributable to a more modern head and/or intake design...so a port and polish by a respectable tuner may do wonders for power. Please note however that these heads are more current designs may not be easy to swap onto the 4Af block.

What you will need:

Block: 4A-FE stock is fine for a simple swap...but you may want to blueprint and/or build up the bottom end for better reliability (or if you are planning on crazy boost.)
Head/ Intake Manifold/Supercharger/Exhaust manifold from the 4AGE/GZE. You may consider a port and polish while the head is off. Donor car would be an 86(?)-89 MR-2sc for the 4A-GZE. This will also swap the car from a MAP to an AFM. . There are many different revisions on the 4A-GE heads and one revision on the 4Af block. You may wish to research the type of 4A head you wish to swap as heads were developed: with and with out TVIS, 16 valves, 20 valves and supercharged. In order of difficulty the swap will be 16V as the simplest, 20 valve, then supercharged (-GZE).
GE Head decisions:
If you want torque go with a RED TOP.
Horsepower, then go will the BLUE TOP.
You may also you the 20v BLACK or SILVER TOP, though this create more difficulty in the conversion.

Timing belt: Because you are switching to a true twin cam design (GE head) it is necessary to move to a new size. A timing belt for a Porsche 924/944 appears to fit this swap.
Cam pulley: Again, becasue you are moving to a GE head you need the cam pulley from the 4A head.
4A head gasket: minor modification may be needed. M
Pistons: forged pistons from the 4AGZE or go custom (you may be able to find 4A-GE pistons).
Rods: 4AFE or custom (for better reliability or if you are planning on crazy boost.)
Fuel pump: upgrade needed (4AGZE or supra pump possibly?)
Fuel injector/lines: 4AGZE
ECU and wiring: 4AGZE should work if you are planning on staying close to stock boost and are on a budget...otherwise look into a programmable ecu. The 4Af ecu wont function properly with boost conditions in the manifold.
GZE oil sump pan w/ oil cooler
(optional) Intercooler from 4A-GZE

Basically combine the parts together (easy as that huh?), replace the hybrid back into the car workout the wiring and fuel lines and you are ready to go.

From the Guestbook:

There are some mis-givings in the write-up about putting a
4ag head onto a 4af. The 20V head is much more complicated and currently there is debate as to whether everything does line up properly. That is not the biggest issue though as the wiring is incredibly intense and little
information exists on it. As for Blue Hat and Red Hat
difference, w/in the head itself none exists. It was
a difference in blocks actually that happened in 87+ for
the MR2's. Hope this helps some people
-Hardrvin

Now my words of warning/common sense....

First of let me point out that I have NOT done this swap at this time...so take all information there in at face value and know that I can't answer detailed questions about the swap. All the information I gathered at one point or another online from various sources (and unfortunately did not keep most names/email/identities) so it may or may not be correct and may be slightly different for different generations/builds of the engine. Basically I'm asking you to use this page only as a starting point for the swap...not as your authority. If you want more information there are links at the end to more sources that will give you a more through explanation. Of course I welcome a write up on this swap and would be happy to replace modify this page if someone would care to share this information in a more detailed, accurate form.

Please also note that if you are not doing this yourself...that a lot of work/parts are custom, the block needs to be pulled from the car despite that it ultimately returns, and the use of parts such as drive shafts and tranny that aren't built to handle much power over 115 HP may cause prices to approach, or even surpass, the cost of other options such as:

Swapping in a stock engine comes with a better output than the end result of this hybrid. I'm thinking, of course, of the 3S-GTE with 180-260 HP with no aftermarket upgrades. Remember that the chassis/frame of the Celica was designed to accommodate the 3S-GTE in the GT-4 overseas. Supposedly this is also fairly straightforward, as the 3S-GTE will bolt into 5S-FE engine mounts... which have holes already drilled.

Basically, I'm saying that this is a project to do at your own risk (financially, safety-wise or otherwise)...and think long and hard about it before you proceed.

Thanks for 91 Celica St for the above information

Brian R.
10-07-2006, 02:02 PM
READING YOUR SPARK PLUGS

http://www.dansmc.com/Spark_Plugs/Spark_Plugs_catalog.html

http://www.dragstuff.com/techarticles/reading-spark-plugs.html

Brian R.
11-09-2006, 12:10 AM
POSTING A LINK TO AN IMAGE FILE OR INSERTING AN IMAGE INTO A POST

Get an account at Photobucket.com (or some equivalent host) and upload the images from your computer (or camera directly) to there. Then copy and paste either the Url link to the image file or the Img reference itself to a post. Both the Img link and the Url link are generated under the image on photobucket.com by that site automatically. Here's a couple of examples:

If I post the following link, you only see the link in the post, clicking on it will allow you to download the linked image from photobucket.com:

http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/i1010.gif

If I post the IMG link (as below), then I will have the actual image inserted into the post, as long as I don't break the link by moving the image file on photobucket.com. If you do, you have to update the links to that file or you only see a placeholder, no image any more.

xhttp://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/i1010.gif

gives you without the "x" at the beginning:

http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/i1010.gif

Brian R.
11-21-2006, 02:25 AM
REPLACING STARTER IN 1.8L 7A-FE '96

Thanks to GSS123 for the following description and comments.

I usually hang out more in the Camry forum but I do have one Corolla. I thought I would post my recent repair of the starter for other shade tree mechanics.

I have a 1996 1,8L 7A-FE engine, 5-speed manual transmission with just a tad over 180,000 miles. During early August I noticed the starter would have a slight pause before pulling in the solenoid. At first I thought it was the safety switch that is activated when the clutch is fully depressed. I ruled the switch out with my testing since I could hear the solenoid click when the ignition was turned to the ON position; therefore the clutch safety switch was working. Eventually nothing would happen when I turned the car on except for a single click or sometimes just a hummm sound.

Reading the FAQ section I found a description of my problem and decided to rebuild the solenoid by replacing the old contact with new contacts. New contacts from my local Toyota dealer are $6.50 each and two are required. A new starter is $176.00 from the same dealer. I didn’t ask them what their charge was for replacing a starter. But the part counter manager said they usually rebuild the starters instead of replacing them. I was surprised at this, knowing they would have to stand behind their work if the starter crapped out again say in 3 months. Their labor rate is $90 per hour. I figured they would go with new starter just as a CYA move.

First problem I encounter with removing the starter is my Haynes manual for 1993-1997 Corolla's & GEO Prizm's is way off base. In my case you need to remove the battery and the Air Cleaner housing. In the Haynes manual they say you need to remove the battery and cruise control assembly from the engine compartment. I think this is a misprint? The cruise control assembly is near the timing belt side of the engine and the starter is near the transmission side of the engine.

So after tossing the Haynes manual to the side I proceeded removing the battery and air cleaner housing. Next I raised the car about a foot off the ground and made sure it was blocked up and safe to crawl under. I then doubled checked my blocking and then checked it a third time before crawling under the car.

Next I disconnected the electrical connections from the starter. One connection (coming from the battery) needs a 12mm socket or wrench. The other connection (coming from the ignition) is a plug type; you’ll need a screw driver or something to press a raised nub of plastic down so you can slide the connection apart.

Place these wires aside and take off your coat and any heavy sweaters you have on because this next part requires a very thin arm and about a triple jointed elbow. Reach up between the axle and suspension cross member to place a 14mm socket on the lower bolt holding the starter to the bell housing. This is a pain in the A_ _, but after several socket wrench extension changes, relocating the wrench a half dozen times I got the bolt out. Really only took about 30 minutes, but working on the garage floor and reaching for a tool is a whole different world then what a professional mechanic works in.

Next get out from under the car and go up on top and remove the top bolt holding the starter to the bell housing. You'll have to move a portion of the main wiring harness out your way but there's enough slack in the harness. After the second bolt is out I just let the starter fall, the pros a now shaking their heads at this I’m sure??? The starter falls down and is caught on the axle and suspension cross member. Get back under the car and work the started toward the passenger side fender skirt. The skirt is plastic and it will move out of you way far enough to pull the starter out.

Replace the solenoid contacts; I used information provided in the FAQ section.

On reinstalling the starter I don't see how one person can do this job. So I drafted a family member to screw the upper bolt in after I got the starter in place from underneath the car. Then I put the lower bolt in, reconnected the wires to the solenoid, and attached the air filter housing and finally the battery.

Started right up just like brand new corolla. Total time including putting the car on stands, installing the contacts and cleaning up the starter housing 4 hours.

Brian R.
02-03-2007, 05:25 PM
1998 Corollas are eligible for extended warrantly/free repairs

The evaporative emission control system warranty will be extended from the current two years or 24,000 miles to 14 years or 150,000 miles. The extended warranty is estimated to cost Toyota about $3 million, and will reduce emissions of hydrocarbons by affected vehicles by an estimated 30 tons, in addition to the 1,200-ton reduction of hydrocarbons achieved by the supplement environmental project.

Owners who have not received a notice within 12 months are encouraged to contact their local Toyota dealer. Owners of affected vehicles who suspect a problem with their evaporative emission control system (including the smell of gasoline vapors) should contact an authorized Toyota dealer for service under the extended evaporative system warranty. Toyota will not cover the cost of repairs or diagnosis for systems other than the evaporative emission system or for repairs performed by parties other than authorized Toyota repair facilities.

See the following list for affected vehicles:

http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/EPA1.jpg

http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/EPA2.jpg

Brian R.
02-11-2007, 05:27 PM
HARD STARTING

Q: My vehicle (100k miles) is acting up when I try to start it on cold mornings (-10,-15 deg C) Canadian weather.

The starter turns 2-3 times then it stops while all the lights in the dash are on. Usually when I try the second or sometimes the third time, the engine eventually starts. Some mornings the starter does not make any noises at all when I try it the first time, but after I try the second time it turns rather slowly and eventually the truck starts up.
I had the same problem about three weeks ago and I purchased a new battery. The truck started OK all this time but now I have the same problem again.

The truck starts OK during the day except when it is parked for 8 hours or more.
I never liked the way the truck starts since I purchased it 2 years ago. The starter needs to turn 4-5 times before the engine starts. All my previous vehicles started at one turn (4 cyl cars).

A: 1. How long a drive do you take? If the new battery solved your problem and now it's back, then it may be you are not driving the truck long enough to charge the battery. Along with this, you may have a big drain on your battery because of an accessory that is running, such as a large amplifier/stereo, etc. A high-current drain would make your alternator work much harder and longer to get the battery recharged. Starting the vehicle in the cold puts a large drain on the battery and the alternator can only put out a limited amount of current to replace that used in starting. Check your battery. If it is poorly charged, then it is likely that the alternator or alternator connections are your problem. It may also be that your alternator drive belt is loose and slipping so that you are not charging the battery as well as you could. Check the drive belt for the alternator and make sure it's tight as it should be.

2. In that respect, your alternator may be inadequate to recharge your battery. Consider having it's output checked. It may not be putting out enough juice to charge the battery quick enough to keep you going. Also, the cable from the alternator may be bad and limiting the current to charge the battery. If you find that the alternator is fine, but the battery is not well charged because you don't drive it but 10 min after you start it, you can replace it with a higher curent alternator to charge the battery faster. Again, make sure the cable from the alternator is in good shape.

3. Help your truck get started by making sure the plugs are fresh and you are using a light-weight synthetic motor oil. Dino oil gets thicker when it is older, but not synthetic. I would recommend you use 0W-20 Mobil1 or equivalent brand in Toronto in the winter.

4. A high-capacity battery is also necessary (as I'm sure you know from living up there). When you buy a battery, make sure you buy one with alot of cold-cranking amps. Maybe, your battery isn't up to the task of day-to-day starting because you didn't get one with adequate reserve capacity.

5. If the truck doesn't start right away under the best of circumstances, you may have a fuel delivery-related problem. Check your fuel filter, lines, and fuel pump to make sure you are getting fuel pressure quickly. There should be no delay in building up fuel pressure. A kink in the line, a dirty/clogged filter, or a bad fuel pump can delay starting until the pressure is adequate. The engine will not get the necessary rich mixture to start until the fuel pressure is up to spec. A rich mixture may not be available if the injectors are partially plugged. You can try cleaning them with some gas treatment or bring them to a shop that specializes in fuel-injector cleaning.

6. Check the current draw on the starter. If the starter is going bad, it will begin to draw alot more current to do the same work and drain the battery to a much greater extent than a good starter. This will make charging the battery take alot longer and wear out your battery sooner.

7. Under any circumstances, a high drain on the battery will cause a loss of electrolyte. Check the electrolyte level in your battery (all cells) and make sure they are up to the recommended level. Fill them as needed with distilled or deionized water.

It's one of those chicken and egg problems where the engine is not able to start quickly and thus drains the battery. The drained battery turns the engine over more slowly and makes it more difficult to start, which drains the battery further.

Brian R.
04-09-2007, 10:44 PM
Programming Factory Keyless Remotes

http://programyourremote.com/

Brian R.
05-06-2007, 01:08 AM
BREAKING-IN NEW ENGINES

An interesting article on breaking in 4-stroke engines from a very successful engine builder.

http://www.mototuneusa.com/break_in_secrets.htm

And one about breaking in Lycoming aircraft engines.

http://www.lycoming.com/support/tips-advice/key-reprints/pdfs/Key%20Operations.pdf

See the first page...

"A new, rebuilt or overhauled engine should receive the same start, warm-up and preflight checks as any other engine. There are some aircraft owners and pilots who would prefer to use low power settings for cruise during the break-in period. This is not recommended. A good break-in requires that the piston rings expand sufficiently to seat with the cylinder walls. This seating of the ring with the cylinder wall will only occur when pressures inside the cylinder are great enough to cause expansion of the piston rings. Pressures in the cylinder only become great enough for a good break-in when power settings above 65% are used.
Full power for takeoff and climb during the break-in period is not harmful; it is beneficial, although engine temperatures should be monitored closely to ensure that overheating does not occur. Cruise power settings above 65%, and preferably in the 70% to 75% of rated power range, should be used to achieve a good engine break-in.

Remember that if the new or rebuilt engine is normally aspirated (non-turbocharged), it will be necessary to cruise at lower altitudes to obtain the required cruise power levels. Density altitudes in excess of 8000 feet (5000 feet is recommended) will not allow the engine to develop sufficient cruise power for a good break-in.
For those who still think that running the engine hard during break-in falls into the category of cruel and unusual punishment, there is one more argument for high power settings during engine break-in. The use of low power settings does not expand the piston rings enough, and a film of oil is left on the cylinder walls. The high temperatures in the combustion chamber will oxidize this oil film so that it creates a condition commonly known as glazing of the cylinder walls. When this happens, the ring break-in process stops, and excessive oil consumption frequently occurs. The bad news is that extensive glazing can only be corrected by removing the cylinders and rehoning the walls. This is expensive, and it is an expense that can be avoided by proper break-in procedures.

To summarize, there are just a few items to remember about engine break-in:
1. If a preservative oil has been added by the aircraft manufacturer, drain it no later than the first 25 hours of operation;
2. Follow the engine manufacturer’s recommendation regarding the oil to be used for break-in and the period between changes;
3. Run the engine at high cruise power levels for best piston ring/cylinder wall mating;
4. Continue break-in operation for 50 hours or until oil consumption stabilizes. These simple procedures should eliminate the possibility of cylinder wall glazing and should prepare the engine for a long and satisfactory service life."

Brian R.
12-21-2008, 03:56 PM
Battery Ratings

According to Consumer Reports, car batteries cost and ratings are as follows (best ratings are at the top of each Group):

Group 65
DieHard Platinum 50065 $180 90
Duralast Gold 65-DLG $97 80
CR Best Buy Kirkland Signature 12866 $75 78
NAPA Performance Select 8465 $90 77
AutoCraft Titanium 65-2 $90 77
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-65N (North) $75 76
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-65S (South) $75 73
Interstate Mega-Tron Plus MTP-65 $114 72
DieHard Gold 33165 (South) $110 67
Duralast 65-DL $88 66
DieHard Gold 33065 (North) $110 62
Interstate Mega-Tron II MT-65 $100 60
DieHard 30065 (North) $90 54
DieHard 30365 (South) $90 50

Group 34/78 & 78
DieHard Platinum 50090 $180 91
Optima RedTop SC34U $150 76
Deka Intimidator 9A78DT $188 75
DieHard SUV, Truck and Van 39990 (South) $120 72
CR Best Buy NAPA Select 84 34/78 $82 67
CR Best Buy AutoCraft Titanium 34/78-4 $83 66
DieHard SUV, Truck and Van 39890 (North) $120 66
Orbital Exide Select ORB78DT-84 $172 66
Interstate Mega-Tron Plus MTP-78DT $113 63
Duralast Gold 34DT-DLG $95 63
EverStart Maxx-78N (North) $75 60
EverStart Maxx-78S (South) $75 59
Interstate Mega-Tron II MT-78DT $99 52

Group 24 /24F
Interstate Mega-Tron Plus MTP-24 $101 83
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-24N (North) $75 82
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-24S (South) $75 78
DieHard Gold 33123 (South) $110 76
Duralast Gold 24-DLG $89 75
AutoCraft Titanium 24-6 $85 72
DieHard Gold 33023 (North) $110 59
Interstate Mega-Tron II MT-24 $88 43

Group 35
Duralast Gold 35-DLG $93 79
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-35N (North) $75 79
DieHard Gold 33035 (North) $110 78
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-35S (South) $75 73
Interstate Mega-Tron Plus MTP-35 $90 68
DieHard Gold 33135 (South) $110 64

Group 75
Duralast Gold 75-DLG $89 75
Interstate Mega-Tron Plus MTP-75 $100 75
AutoCraft Titanium 75-3 $85 74
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-75N (North) $75 73
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-75S (South) $75 73
DieHard Gold 33075 (North) $110 72
DieHard Gold 33175 (South) $110 69
CR Best Buy Kirkland Signature 12869 $60 68
NAPA Select 84 8475 $90 68

Die Hard At Sears and Kmart only.
Duralast At AutoZone only.
Kirkland At Costco only.
NAPA At NAPA only.
Autocraft At Advance Auto Parts only.
EverStart At Wal-Mart only.

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