11-22-2005, 01:00 AM
“I want a pollution-free engine” – During the World War II, for some American aircrafts they used the engines with cylinders that, along with fuel, were injected a minor portion of water. Coming in contact with burning fuel and white-hot surfaces of the piston and the cylinder, the water boiled, and the expanding steam helped the actuation gases to jog the piston and do the useful work. The water, transforming into the steam when boiling or evaporating, expanded in volume by 1700 times (under atmospheric pressure), which considerably increased the power, torque and efficiency factor of the engines. It provided not only for fuel economy and increase of power for 10-15%, but also for facilitation of the cooling system because the cylinders were cooled with water rather internally than externally. Because of their complexity, the engines with water-injection into the cylinders were not used on a large scale. The contemporary science and technology, especially electronics, achieved impressive progress, and now that the oil prices are constantly increasing, it’s high time to return to these undeservingly forgotten, but very potential engines. The electronics should control the precise dose of the injected water and its pre-warming from external walls of the cylinder in order to make the water’s temperature, before the injection, as much as possible approach the steam point which inevitably rises in the compressed gas medium. The electronics also can control the warming up of the fuel and air entering the cylinders. The more effective direct water-cooling of the scorching, intensively rubbing piston rings, the piston and the cylinder, extends the operations of the engine. Injected water and steam make it possible to create the required form and speed of the flame expansion, and thus, to prevent the explosive effects (detonation) and, without any harm for the engines, to increase the pressure of the fuel mixture and use the cheaper low-octane gasoline. The water injected into the cylinder will low down the temperature of the burning gases and thus constraint the content of toxic nitrates forming out of atmospheric nitrogen at high temperature. As it’s widely known, the air consists of about 79% of that nitrogen, and of only 21% of oxygen necessary for the fuel burning. For example, a hardly smouldering kindling treated into the test-tube with clear oxygen instantly flares up. Thus, it is necessary to increase the percentage composition of the oxygen in the air coming into the cylinder, or, respectively, decrease the presence of the nitrogen, which does not only sustain the combustion, but like sand and water, which are used for putting out the fires, opposes it. In order to disengage oxygen, or at least nitrogen, the modern industry uses the cumbrous cascades of evaporators and condensers, characterized by considerable energy consumption but low efficiency. Effectiveness and endurance of membrane molecular filters are not sufficient either. It is easier to increase the content of oxygen in the air mass by means of a swiftly spinning centrifugal machine, where the comparatively heavy elements of oxygen (molecular mass – 32) will push out the lighter elements of nitrogen (molecular mass – 28). Obviously, it is impossible to get the pure oxygen in such a way. But if, in the air coming into the cylinder, we reduce the nitrogen content by two – from 79% to 40%, the oxygen content will increase by almost three times – from 21% to 60%, and the energy released under burning conditions, will increase by 5-7 times! In such intensive burning conditions the fuel will be fully combusted. Obligatory for all automobiles neutralizer, which robs the engine of its power in order to burn down the toxic odds of unburned fuel, carbon soot, carbon oxide, and in case of low quality fuel, hydrogen sulphide, will become unnecessary. By reducing the nitrogen in the air coming into the cylinders, we will decrease the quantity of nitrogen oxide discharge, which otherwise causes acid rains, harmful not only for every living organism on the Earth, but also for landmarks, various buildings, constructions, and even for the paint coating of the automobiles. It is possible to separate the oxygen and nitrogen elements by their different intensity of magnetization by means of the preliminary ionization. The air, fuel, injected water and, then, the combustion materials could be magnetized at high temperatures and ionized at low ones. By means of circumjacent inductance coils protected by heat-resistant ceramics, it is possible to create the required form of the fuel mixture – densely bunch it in the center, regularly distribute it about the whole cylinder, or relocate it to the cylinder’s walls – and the speed of its inflammation. Increasing that we could augment the power, and reducing it – prevent detonation. It would not be amiss to make use of that energy as the speed of the flame spread in case of explosion, compared to that of controlled (restricted) burning, is by 5-20 times and more higher, depending on the compression ratio and other conditions. Due to the excessive air pressure it is possible, without power reduction, to considerably reduce the quantity of the fuel flowing into the cylinder. Certainly, the engine stability should be relevant to the tension imposed, and the control algorithm for the “explosion-motor” should be thought up. At that, in order to lessen the unwanted consequences from the working gas impacts, it is better to make the upper part of the piston or its junction with the piston rod – the wrist, slightly springy. The pistons and cylinders, exposed to strong emanation of the flame, could be manufactured not only of iron or lighter aluminum and magnesium, but also of ceramics, and still better of single-crystalline silicon or germanium, which in the sun batteries produce energy. That energy, through the electric motor, could help the pistons to turn the crankshaft. And what if the semiconducting silicon in photovoltaic arrays could be replaced by tetravalent crystallized carbon - heatproof and the most solid artificial diamond, which could be used for production of the pistons and cylinders, or just their surfaces? Sometimes, on submarines, in the outer space, and deep under the ground, at high-power stations and domiciliary, they already use the ecofriendly Stirling engines. There, in the absolutely enclosed space, and preferably under high pressure (200-500 atmospheres), the helium, heated up from the furnace with external warming up system, expands and on the other side of the cylinder, in the special refrigerator, it is cooled down, which is relatively “constricted”. The resulting pressure differential, above the piston and below it, pushes the piston component and then the other cylinders or the stored energy of the revolving fly take over. It could be turbines instead of pistons as well. “Stirling” can work on any fuel: solid, liquid, gaseous, from sun energy, atomic reactor, and from any source of heat, not even connected with burning Let us consider the power, coefficient of efficiency, the highest maximum turning torque on the low rpm (due to which “Stirling” can surpass overstrains, and at that, unlike other engines, does not fail, and allows to do without a gear-box). It is efficient, undemanding of the fuel and lubricants, unpretentious and simple to maintain, multi-applicable and noiseless. It is characterized by quick start in winter season, durability, not large unit weight and compactness, profitable prime cost, reliability and many other. Having fantastic properties, for some reason, “Stirling” engines still go unnoticed by manufacturers of stock cars. For the sake of ecology it is necessary to develop and integrate not only hybrid and hydrogen automobile power units. Bezukladnikov Vasilij Alexandrovich. Poste restante 347913, The City of Taganrog, Rostov region, Russia.

11-24-2005, 11:30 AM
WOW.....paragraphs and maybe shorten it a bit....then people will read it

12-17-2005, 07:12 AM
It's a very interesting theorie. I know F1 racecars actually use water inside their fuel mixture to increase the power. It's a very clever idea and future diesel engines will probably use it too, because it really improves the exploding forces inside the cilinder. What you discribe to improve the amount of oxigen wouldn't be all that easy, because the quistion is, how much energy does it take to get rid of the discribed amount of nitrogen. Like you discribed an engine can improve very much in efficiency when the air and fuel mixture are balanced for a full reaction. If the fuel amount is to high you can either reduce it or increase the air (oxigen and nitrogen) by simply pressurise it. I agree 100% oxigen would be preferable, but it is by no means nessesary. Turbo's and intercoolers will already achieve the same resold. In the F1 racing world they have the same problem only with atmospheric engines. But still they pomp out 300 hp per litre engine capacity. They've solved the problem by reving the engine at 18000+ rpm. Therefor the engine is able to suck more air per second inside. This allows them to burn more fuel per second efficiently and create more horsepower. To improve combustion they have to use those 21% as good as they can. Therefor they have to get an equilly spreading of the balanced mix (fuel and air) through the whole cyllinder. (that's why they use mutiple engine valves per cylinder and injection) They also spend many hours testing to design the air intake to get the air to all (10) cylinders as equilly as possible to prevent one cyllinder burning more air then one other. That would reduce the maximum performance of the engine and make it consuming more energy.

Then again your right the engine needs to be stronger, ceramic materials are very capable to do so, but it isn't always realistic because of the price involved. For racecars it does work and it has been proven, no doupt.

Then the last thing, does the fuel and oxigen mixture resold in to an eco friendly car? Well you would still create CO2 which is unavoidable.
You wouldn't create as much NOx or NH3 then a normal car would produce wich would be rather nice and defenatly more eco friendly.

The question is will it be efficient enough to reduce the nitrogen inside the air, because it could take too much energy to do so.

However if it does work I would do something with the information, write it to the specialists. Maybe some car industries might be interested. Especially in the years to come when the polution ristriction from the coverments tightens the throats of the car compagnys further when time progresses.

01-24-2006, 09:53 AM
WOW.....paragraphs and maybe shorten it a bit....then people will read it

Yea i read a little bit of it. Thing is, yes steam expands, but water isn't combustible. How'd they do that?

01-24-2006, 05:59 PM
WOW.....paragraphs and maybe shorten it a bit....then people will read it
i agree
but the idea is still interesting

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