Tacoma FAQs and Information - Search/Read Here Before Posting


Brian R.
06-27-2005, 11:36 AM
ENGINE HISTORY AND SPECS
http://www.geocities.com/MotorCity/Pit/9975/dataBySubject/GasolineEngines.html

http://www.babcox.com/editorial/ar/ar400108.htm

TACOMA/TOYOTA PICK-UP GENERAL HISTORY

1964
The Toyota Stout 4x2 is introduced to the American market. This is the first Toyota Pickup available from Toyota in the United States.

1969
Toyota introduces the Hi-Lux 4x2 with a 4 Cylinder 1.9 Liter engine known as the 3R. This Hi-Lux was quite plain compared to today's standards. Trucks at that time were primarily utility vehicles. The inside had only a metal dashboard, and a single bench seat.

1970
Toyota remodels the engine on the Hi-Lux with a 1.8L called the 8R-C.

1972
The 3rd generation Truck engine is released. It is a 2.0L designated 18R-C.

1973
This next model of Hi-Lux, actually released Spring 1972 (therefore a '72 1/2), took on a new look, much less utilitarian. The new car-like design gave it the quality of a Corolla, but retained its Toyota tendencies to be strong, reliable and inexpensive to operate. Styling changes included turn signals removed from the top of the fenders, and built into the body.

As an option on the 1973 Hi-Lux, was a 7.5' bed. Prior to this huge step forward, hauling of this size could only be accomplished by full sized domestic trucks. This combination of a car-like ride and a Long Bed made the Hi-Lux a strong seller.

1974
The Hi-Lux wins the honor of "Pickup Truck of the Year" from Pickup, Van & 4WD.

1975
The 3rd generation Hi-Lux hits the streets powered by a 2.2L version of the 18R-C called the 20R and was also available (for the first time on a Toyota Utility Vehicle) with a 5-speed manual transmission.

1976
The US version of the Hi-Lux looses its name and is now known as the "compact truck" from this point forward.

1977
September 1977, the one-millionth pickup truck rolled out of the factory in Japan.

1979
The SR5 option is now available on the truck. With its 5-speed manual transmission and powerful engine, the SR5 was intended to appeal to a new type of customer, the sport-truck buyer.

The 1979 model changes (noted as the 4th generation) were the biggest yet. The emphasis now was on passenger comfort while retaining its reputation as a true workhorse. The truck came in two wheel bases: short, and long, creating a real customized feel for the consumer.

The biggest development comes as the introduction of 4 wheel drive. Prior to this year, all of the Toyota Trucks were 2 wheel drive. From this point forward, the 4x2 and 4x4 trucks are a separate product line. Most major modifications from this point forward are the same between the 4x2 and 4x4 unless otherwise noted. The biggest exception to this is that the 4WD model was only available in a 4 speed manual transmission. It was modeled after the Land Cruiser, with a solid front axel, leaf springs on all wheels, and a rugged time tested frame. Aftermarket modification kits such as suspension and body lifts, made the Toyota Truck a huge hit with off-roaders.

The brand new 4WD model is a huge hit, winning the "4WD of the Year" award by Pickup, Van $ 4WD, "4WD Vehicle of the Year" by Off-Road, and "Toughest Truck of the Year" by 4x4 and Off-Road Vehicles.

1981
The Toyota "Legend" can now be found under the hood. The 22R engine that has made the Toyota Truck so dependable is born in the form of a 2.4L gasoline engine. In the same year, a 2.2L diesel engine was now available as well. Body modifications included the "one touch" tailgate.

1982
A 5-speed manual transmission is now available on the 4WD Truck.

1984
The 1984 model year represents the 5th generation of the Truck. Changes to the model continue along the car-like feel of the Truck. The Xtracab is now available for storage behind the seats, and the diesel and 22R engines both were available in a turbo-charged version.

4WD Trucks now come with an available option of "Shift on the Fly". This is a system where the front hubs can be locked automatically, without having to exit the vehicle.

1985
4WD Trucks now have an available 4 speed electronically controlled transmission.

1986
With the affordability of gasoline engines, the diesel engines are discontinued. To give the gas engines a little more boost, the Turbo-charged engine was developed. All trucks now come with Independent Front Suspension (IFS).

1989
6th generation trucks roll out available with a brand new V6 engine. With the optional V6, the Toyota Truck is now capable of towing 3500 pounds while still returning excellent gas mileage. "Rusty Bed Syndrome" of the older trucks was solved at this point as well.

Changes in the Truck were few until 1994. Styling was upgraded regularly and new luxury options such as sport seats, air conditioning, and a CD player. The Truck remained as strong and versatile as ever, while still providing everything that a luxury car could.

1995
Toyota introduces an all new pickup truck, designed in Calty, Southern California, and built in Fremont California (at NUMMI) - The Tacoma. The Tacoma featured brand new high performance engines. A 142-horsepower 2.4L four cylinder with 160 lb.-ft. was standard on the 2WD models, while the 4WD models offered a 150 hp. 2.7L four cylinder engine producing 177 lb.-ft. of torque. On both models, an optional 190 hp. 3.4L V6 engine with 220 lb.-ft. of torque was available. This engine would be shared with the T100.

The suspension was new as well. This redesigned suspension offered a coil spring double-wishbone configuration, which replaced the Hi-Trac torsion bar double wishbone suspension of the previous generation. The lower arm uses a closed cross-sectional structure that adds strength while reducing unsprung weight. Suspension travel on the 4WD models increased from 5.9 inches to 7.7 inches, improving both on and off road performance. Tread width on both 2WD and 4WD also increased, improving steering stability and ride comfort. The Tacoma continued to use the reliable leaf type rear suspension with refinements to layout design.

For safety, a standard driver-side airbag, center high mount stop light, adjustable seatbelt anchors, improved side-view mirrors, and optional four-wheel ABS were added. Additionally, the Tacoma received side door impact beams, and three-point, automatic and emergency locking retractor (ALR and ELR) seatbelts in outboard positions, with an ELR seatbelt on the driver's side.

1997
While mechanically unchanged, the 1997 Tacoma gets a redesigned front-end. The headlights were faired into a new grille, and the whole assembly is more aerodynamic and stylish than before.

The 4WD models Tacoma now has an available locking rear differential, bucket seats on non-SR5 Xtracabs, and revised striping on all SR5s.

1998
A passenger-side airbag is added one year prior to the Federal standard of 1999. For increased safety, the passenger-side airbag can be turned off with the ignition key. Accept for a redesigned sound system and the addition of new colors, the 2WD remains unchanged.

4WD models get interior changes including rotary HVAC controls, 2 additional 12 volt power outlets, and repositioned cupholders. Outside the Tacoma, a larger front bumper and restyled grille and headlights along with new overfenders give Tacoma a more aggressive look.

Mid-year, the Tacoma PreRunner is introduced. This new 2WD pickup combines the rugged styling and off-road ability of the 4WD with the affordability of the 2WD model. The PreRunner was developed in conjunction with Toyota Motorsport's successful desert racing truck program. Much of the suspension tuning and development work was done with the assistance of Toyota-drive Ivan "The Ironman" Stewart. The PreRunner shares identical exterior styling with all '98 4WD models. They are available only as Xtracab models with an automatic transmission and a 4 or 6 cylinder engine.

Enhancing the PreRunner and the 4WD off-road ability is an available Toyota Racing Development (TRD) Off-Road package. The package offers a rugged combination of front and rear Bilstein shock absorbers, locking rear differential on V6 models, progressive-rate front coil springs and rear leaf suspension, modified camber rear springs, a larger front stabilizer bar, 31x10.50R15 white lettered Goodyear tires, 15x7" alloy wheels, black overfenders, and special Off-Road graphics.

1999
The Tacoma PreRunner is available in a Regular Cab model with an automatic transmission equipped with the 2.7L 4 cylinder engine.

2000
Standard daytime running lights are added to all models equipped with ABS. Also, the Tacoma StepSide, a sporty package that added a youthful alternative to the Tacoma lineup.

2001
The Tacoma enters a new model year with an aggressive new styling change which include a new front fascia featuring a vertical grille, raised hood, new multi-reflector headlamps, and jeweled tail lamps. Inside, tether anchor brackets have been added to supplement child restraint systems. Also, several new upgrade packages, and 4 new exterior colors.

The Double Cab is introduced. The Tacoma Double Cab delivers the cargo hauling capability of a pickup, the passenger roominess and comfort of an SUV and rugged styling that makes an aggressive statement. The Double Cab is offered in SR5 and Limited trim levels with available off-road package in the 2WD PreRunner series with a 4 or 6 cylinder engine. It offers 11 inches of ground clearance, and a 61" cargo bed. It's 4 large conventional doors open to a well appointed and roomy interior, featuring spacious front and rear seating and a 60/40 fold-down rear bench with 3-point outboard belts.

The Tacoma S-Runner is introduced as a new Sport Truck. The S-Runner is offered in a 4x2 Xtracab trim level with a 5-speed manual overdrive transmission and powered exclusively by Tacoma's 190-hp V6 engine. Performance is enhanced with a low-to-the-ground sports tuned suspension with Tokico gas shock absorbers and stiffer springs, sway bars and bushings. Ground clearance is reduced by 2 inches from the standard 4x2. The

The S-Runner boasts a full color-keyed exterior that includes the grille, lower valence panel, front and rear bumper, overfenders, and outside door handles and mirrors. For an extreme appearance, a dealer-installed Toyota Racing Development (TRD) body kit is available.

The color-keyed exterior is complemented by an aggressive interior feel which includes standard amenities such as front sports and power lumbar driver seat, front seat for and aft adjustable headrests, leather steering wheel and shift knob, tachometer with twin trip meters, AM/FM/Cassette audio with 6 speakers, tilt steering wheel, variable intermittent wipers and a rear console box.

Finally, the latest addition to the Tacoma family is the StepSide. This package is available on regular and Xtracab 4x2 models, powered by either 4 or 6 cylinder engines. The StepSides cargo box is a solid steel unit and the sporty image is enhanced by the use of front fenders, bumper and grille from the Tacoma 4x4.

Notes
So what does Tacoma mean? Tacoma comes from the Salish Indian word for the mountain that provided water to their tribe (later changed to Mount Rainier). The name suggests images of strength and power.

What about PreRunner? Well, PreRunner is a term that refers to a class of vehicle that is used to "pre-run" an off-road race course in order to save the race vehicle for race day. Often these "pre-runner" vehicle are heavily modified 2WD trucks.

The compact trucks (2 and 4WD) are built at the New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc (NUMMI) in Fremont, California, the Honsha Plant in Toyota City, Japan, and all truck beds are produced at TABC in Long Beach, California. 4WD trucks are also built in the Tahara Plant in Tahara, Japan.

All Tacomas are manufactured at NUMMI.

The StepSide pickup truck was co-developed by design engineers at NUMMI, Toyota Motor Sales (TMS) USA, Product Planning Group and Rob Millen Motorsports in Huntington Beach, California.

The above data is provided courtesy of Toyota Motor Company, Inc.

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 12:33 PM
STARTER CLICKS ONCE BUT DOES NOT TURN ENGINE

Q: Often my starter will just click and not turn over the engine. It will do this for a long time, but eventually it will act normally. Is this a common problem with Toyotas? How can I fix it?

A: Yes, it is a common problem with Toyota starters. Many times, the problem is sticking starter solenoid contacts. See the following links for descriptions on how to replace them. This is a really cheap and easy fix on a Tacoma and should be the first thing you try after you check all the cable connections and the battery quality.

http://www.autozone.com/servlet/UiBroker?ForwardPage=/az/cds/en_us/0900823d/80/13/e2/1e/0900823d8013e21e.jsp

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=166530

15 Toyota (NipponDenso now called Denso) starter-repair reference sites:

http://www.off-road.com/4x4web/toyota/tech/starter/ -
http://www.4crawler.com/4x4/CheapTricks/Starter.shtml
http://char.tuiasi.ro/vw/reality/rogerb/4x4/CheapTricks/Starter.html
http://yotarepair.com/startercontacts.html
http://www.toyotaoffroad.net/afertig/88/starterrepair.htm
http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/maintenance/starter/
http://www.yotatech.com/~corey/tech/haveblue_starter/haveblue.htm
http://www.sleeoffroad.com/technical/tz_starter_rebuild.htm
http://www.startercontacts.com/install.htm
http://www.startercontacts.com/images/OSGR%20Exploded%20view.jpg
http://www.colorado4x4.net/tech/starter_contacts/starter_contacts.html
http://www.barneymc.com/toy_root/techneek/starter.htm
http://perso.wanadoo.fr/adherence.4x4/start_bj.htm
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=166530
http://www.toyotanation.com/forum/showthread.php?threadid=27312&forumid=10
http://www.toyotanation.com/showthread.php?threadid=27312&forumid=10

Starter contact kits (8mm ID hole):

Ace Electric # S-5263 (only two contacts)
Ace Electric # S-5264 (only two contacts)
Metro # 66-82104 (only two contacts) (www.metroautoinc.com ,Pomona,California)
Toyota # 28226-72010/80 (battery side)(also1KZTE-2LT-1KZT)
Toyota # 28226-72080 (8808-9108)
Toyota # 28226-16130 (9108-9308)
Toyota # 28226-55050 (9308-9511)
Toyota # 28226-70040 (9308-9511)
Toyota # 28226-72040 (motor side if needed)
Toyota # 28226-72010 (8808-9511)
Toyota # 28226-74070 (9108-9511)

For others besides 22R series:

Toyota # 28226-54220 (motor side) (2LTE, 3L..LN13# IKZTE, 2L#, KZN130,LN108,112,85..4FC)
Toyota # 28226-54250 (Diesel Surf 2.4TD, contains a new end cover and gasket)
Toyota # 28226-54320 (battery side) (2LTE, 3L..LN13# IKZTE, 2L#, KZN130, LN108,112,85..4FC,3B-1HZ-BJ73-HZJ7#-1KZT-KZJ70)
Toyota # 28226-17030 (battery side) (1H#-HDJ80-HZJ80)
Toyota # 28226-56250 (battery side) (3B-1HZ-1PZ-PZJ7#)

Starter contacts only (8mm ID hole):

Ace Electric # S-5231
Ace Electric # S-5293 (crescent moon shape)
Ace Electric # S-5295 (crescent moon shape)
Metro # 66-82106 (www.metroautoinc.com ,Pomona,California)
Tons more at:
http://www.metroautoinc.com/PDF%20File/66-Denso%20Solenoid%20Contact.pdf
Toyota # 28226-70040
Wilson’s Electric # 45-29-652

Starter brushes:

AC Delco # D762
GP Sorensen # 255048
Standard # JX-117

Whether your starter uses two rectangular types or one rectangular and one crescent you can substitute with two squares or one square and one crescent so any of the above part #'s for those kits will be the right ones, or about half of the auto electric shops in your local yellow pages would sell aftermarket contacts for only $5 each or the pair.

Thanks to SydneyCanada for the above information


STARTER CLICKS CONTINUOUSLY BUT DOES NOT TURN ENGINE

Q: What if the starter clicks not once, but very fast and does not turn the engine over?

A:The problem you're having is not the solenoid contacts as described above. With bad solenoid contacts, there is only one click (the starter relay), not many. Your problem is insufficient current/voltage getting to the starter.

Most likely cause is a bad battery. Before you buy one, check the battery terminals - make sure they are on tight and they are clean. Check the connections on the other end of the battery cables for tightness and cleanliness also. If all looks good, replace the battery.

If the battery cable connections are bad, loosen them from the battery and clean them with baking soda/water slurry until they are bright metal, then reconnect them and tighten them snug. Coat them with petroleum jelly to prevent them from corrosion.

It it's possible something has been left on, like your headlights or dome light etc. and the battery may be drained/discharged, try charging it first or bring it in to have it tested before you buy a new one.


BLOWER MOTOR FOR HEATER OR A/C DOES NOT WORK ON ALL SPEEDS

Q: My blower motor doesn't work for the bottom three speeds. What is the problem - is it the motor or what?

A: It is most likely a bad connection or bad resistor on the resistor block that controls the current to the motor. See the discussion in the following links:

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=252829

http://www.4crawler.com/4x4/CheapTricks/Blower.shtml

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 12:43 PM
Thanks to yotarepair.com for alternative instuctional drawings:

TIMING BELT REPLACEMENT INSTRUCTIONS

Q: My engine stopper running suddenly on the highway and now it won't start. Any guesses as to what the problem is? How do I replace my timing belt? What should I replace while I'm in there to save time in the future?

A: It sounds like you may have broken your timing belt. If you can see the cam shafts by looking through the oil filler hole in the head cover, then you can use these as an indicator. If the cams don't turn when the engine is cranked, your timing belt is broken. You may have to remove the valve cover.

Here are links to instructions for replacing the timing belt in various Tacoma engines:

2RZ-FE
Timing Chain

3RZ-FE
Timing Chain

5VZ-FE
http://yotarepair.com/PDF%20files/5VZ-FE_timing_belt_remo.pdf
http://yotarepair.com/PDF%20files/5VZ-FE_timing_belt_inst.pdf

Another procedure:
http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/maintenance/timing_belt/

Additional Comments on Replacing Timing Belts

Other than the timing belt whether or not you need more parts depends on if there are any fluid leaks inside the timing cover, the water pump may need to be replaced and there may be oil seals such as the front crankshaft seal or the camshaft seals that may be leaking and need to be replaced.

If you do it yourself, make sure you understand how to set #1 piston at TDC on compression stroke. Also, be prepared to stop and put everything back together if you find you cannot remove the crank pulley bolt. I think this is the hardest part from a strength point of view. Air gun is best way. Really long cheater bar with tool to hold the crank is also good. A method of last resort is to position the breaker bar handle on the driver's side frame rail and just tap the starter with the plugs out. If the breaker bar handle is secure, the bolt will loosen. Don't use this method to completely back out the bolt, just to break it loose.

Also, be careful and gentle with the new timing belt. Handle it as if it were a piece of gold foil. Don't bend it sharply, contaminate it with anything, or turn it inside out.

Don't scratch the sensor part of the crankshaft timing pulley.

Don't use the timing belt tension to tighten the mounting bolt of the camshaft timing pulley.

If there is noticeable wear or cracks on the belt face, check to see if there are nicks on the side of the idler pulley lock.

If there is wear or damage on only one side of the belt, check the belt guide and alignment of each pulley.

If there is noticable wear on the belt teeth, check the timing cover for damage, correct gasket installation, and for foreign material on the pulley teeth.

Check to make sure the idler pulley turns smoothly. If not, replace.

Clean all the pulleys and keep them clean.

If you have to turn the crankshaft, always turn it clockwise.

Make sure you have all the gaskets you need. Clean the gasket surfaces to shiny metal everywhere before you replace the gaskets. Replace the timing cover gaskets if they are at all questionable.

Make note of all the electical connections you disconnect when you disconnect them. Make sure they are all connected when you are done (DOH!).

Check the accessory drive belts and replace them if they are old.

Torque everything.


INTERFERENCE ENGINES
Q: What is an interference engine and is my Toyota engine an interference engine? Why should I care?

A: An interference engine is one in which the valves and pistons can touch if the cams and crank are not kept in correct timing by the timing belt or chain. Most (not all) Toyota passenger car engines are free-running (non-interference engines). This means that if your timing belt breaks, then all that will happen is your engine will not run anymore until the belt is replaced. In an interference engine, piston-to-valve contact will cause very serious damage to the engine if the timing belt breaks.

To see if your engine is an interference engine or not, look it up in the following brochure:

http://www.gates.com/downloads/download_common.cfm?file=TBR05.pdf&folder=brochure

An asterisk opposite your engine means it is an interference engine.

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 03:30 PM
SERVICE PUBLICATIONS
Q: Where can I purchase Toyota Service and Repair Manuals for my Tacoma?

A: Printed copies of all Toyota, Scion, and Lexus service support information can be purchased directly from the Toyota Materials Distribution Center or MDC. The MDC stocks printed versions of most Toyota service information products, including legacy model information that is not available on this site.

Note: Certain inventory items are produced in limited quantities and may not be reprinted or reissued once initial inventory is depleted.

MDC telephone operators accept Visa and MasterCard credit card orders, Monday through Friday, 8 AM to 5 PM Pacific Time.

To place orders call 1-800-622-2033

VARIOUS USED MANUALS - mostly older
http://www.autobooksonline.com/

TRANSMISSION REPAIR MANUALS
Q: Where can I purchase transmission repair manuals?

A: http://www.autorepairmanuals.biz/site/573683/page/267592

RENT ONLINE ACCESS TO MANUALS HERE:
http://www.eautorepair.net/
http://www.alldata.com/products/diy/index.html

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 06:56 PM
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

Q: How can I find out what maintenance is recommended for my Tacoma at 60k (or whenever)? How much will it cost?

A: Fill out the form on the following site: http://www.edmunds.com/maintenance/MaintenanceServlet?popup=new&tid=edmunds..directoryalpha.directory..1.*

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 07:01 PM
OIL AND OIL-CHANGE INTERVAL, AND OIL FILTER BRAND RECOMMENDATIONS

Q: What is the best motor oil to use in my car and how often should I change it? What is the best brand of oil filter?

A: These questions have more answers and opinions than there are grains of sand on a beach. Read opinions at the following site and become one of the opinionated on these subjects:

http://theoildrop.server101.com/cgi/ultimatebb.cgi

As a general rule, if you want longer oil-change intervals and don't mind paying more for your oil, use an oil with a synthetic base stock such as Mobil 1, Castrol Syntec, etc. Use the oil viscocity that is recommended in your owner's manual.

OIL ANALYSIS AND OIL CHANGE INTERVAL
To determine the optimum oil change frequency for your vehicle requires that you perform several oil analysis during one oil change interval. For example, if your vehicle has 15,000 miles on it and the manufacturer recommends 7500 mile oil changes for normal service and 5000 miles for severe, perform an analysis at 18,750 miles, 20,000 miles, and 22,500 miles (if the first or second test shows a need for an oil change then stop there). Do not exceed the manufacturer's normal service interval even if the analysis shows no need for an oil change at 7500 miles. The oil change industry desperately desires that you NOT perform such an analysis. The almost certain result for most drivers will be that even at 7500 miles the oil will still be fine.

Even after your vehicle is out of warranty it is a good idea to continue to follow the manufacturer's schedule for maintenance. There are frequently special campaigns (not recalls) to fix latent defects after the warranty has expired. Lately we've seen these on some Toyota V6 engines and some Saturn engines. You want the manufacturer to have no excuse to deny coverage. Also you can sometimes get a manufacturer to share the cost of an expensive repair when something fails after the warranty has expired, but this is at their pleasure and it is best to have solid proof that you have followed the maintenance schedules.

Big oil users like bus companies and truck fleets use oil analysis to extend the life of their engines without unnecessary oil changes. The reasons are clear. These big engines can use 3-4 gallons of oil and unnecessary changes are expensive in both time and materials. In some cases they change the filters and put in additives to replace the acid neutralizers and anti-wear agents. A good analogy is swimming pool maintenance. You clean the filters, you remove the debris, you add stabilizers and disinfectants, but you rarely empty the whole pool and refill it.

Two places to get your oil analyzed are:

Lubricon Lubricant Consultants, Inc 350 E. Churchman Ave. Beech Grove, IN 46107 (317) 783-2968

Cleveland Technical Center 18419 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44112-1016 (800) 726-5400

API CERTIFICATION, PHOSPHOROUS & ZDDP
Never use a non-API certified synthetic oil (there are many of these on the market). The problem with the non-API certified synthetics is that they contain too much phosphorus (in the form of the additive ZDDP (Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphates)). The API has limited the amount of phosphorus because phosphorus shortens the life of the catalytic converter. These oils are fine for snowmobiles, motorcycles, and older cars that don't have a catalytic converter, and the extra ZDDP does provide additional wear protection.

Unfortunately, the marketers of some the non-certified oils do not explicitly and honestly state the reason for the lack of API certification. You can check the status of API certification on the API web site. Be certain to go not just by the manufacturer name but by the actual product as well. This is because a manufacturer often have both certified and non-certified products. Suffice it to say that Mobil 1, Royal Purple, Castrol, & Havoline all make synthetic oils that are API certified and that can be purchased at auto parts stores and other retail outlets. AMSOIL has one product line, XL-7500 that is API certified, but it's other lines contain too much ZDDP to be certified and should not be used in vehicles with catalytic converters.

MOTOR OIL MYTHS AND FACTS
http://www.nordicgroup.us/oil.htm

OIL CHANGE PROCEDURE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?p=3157041#post3157041

OIL FILTER STUDIES

Q: What oil filters are the best?

A: Here are studies performed on various brands of filters. Make your own judgement:

http://www.frankhunt.com/FRANK/corvette/articles/oilfilterstudy/oilfilterstudy.html

http://www.frankhunt.com/FRANK/corvette/articles/oilfilterstudy/oilfilters.html

http://www.scuderiaciriani.com/rx7/oil_filter_study/

http://www.oilfilterstudy.com/

OIL ADDITIVES

Q: What about the various oil additives?

A: Here's a discussion on the subject:
http://www.offroaders.com/tech/snake-oil.htm

In general, lubricating oil contain additive packages that have been certified to provide a minimum level of protection as specified by the specification they meet (SF or whatever). Adding an additive to the oil is something you should do sparingly.

For a discussion of additive packages, see:
http://www.dirtroadmagazine.com/oil.htm

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 07:08 PM
WHAT LUBRICANT TO USE

Q: What lubricants should I use in my '99 Tacoma differential, transmission, engine, etc?

A: Look up your vehicle on the AMSOIL website and look down the list for the lubricant they recommend:

https://www.amsoil.com/scripts/runisa.dll?amsoiloaf:index

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 07:26 PM
Thanks to sanengo and Toysrme for the following ideas:

Want more horsepower? Not enough money for a Turbo/SC?

Q: How do I increase the power of my Tacoma?

A: Performance headers (Not emissions safe)

Installing a performance air filter or cold air intake (CAI) is not a very wise investment for power, but if every bit helps, and you enjoy a more throaty sound, go for it. Get recommendations from others with your engine. Some intakes actually cost you power, but sound louder.

Make sure there is some give to the CAI system. Some CAIs bolt directly to the engine and to the body at each end. When the engine moves, the end bolted to the body has no give and may tear the bolts out of the body where attached.

TRD, AEM, and AMSOIL sell excellent and reusable oil-impregnated air filters. The AEM and TRD filters are the same and are cotton-fiber based. The AMSOIL filter is multi-layer foam.[/edit]

CLEAN YOUR ENGINE TO REGAIN LOST POWER! Carb cleaner and seafoam to start with. GET RID OF ENGINE CARBON! Believe it or not, spraying a small stream of water through the brake booster vacuum line of your engine can clear away carbon deposites VERY efficiently. (Just don't hydrolock your engine, if the engine is choking too much push on the butterfly valve on your TB)

[b]For any vane-flap Toyota vehicle. 22RE's, 3S's, VZ blocks... And most other AFM vehicles.

This is a vane-flap air-flow meter. You slice the silicon glue off the top, and pry the black plastic top off Exposing the innards.

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v414/Toysrme/Answers/NoReally-NoAirbox.jpg

An AFM. It is not a MAF... They measure the VOLUME of airflow, by a flap, held closed by spring tension. On top of the flap is a small arm, which rotates along what essentially is a pointometer.

The ECU sends an exact voltage to the AFM, and reads the flap. It also reads a small air temperature sensor in the AFM housing. From this -> an AFM can accurately meter the MASS of airflow. (the important part!)

1) Reset the ecu - pull the EFI fuse for one nanosecond and replace it
2) Cut glue
3) Pry UP plastic top
4) PAINT THE STARTING COG
5) Rotate cog clockwise

3 clicks, 5 clicks, 7 clicks seem to be where people like. As soon as you get over the shock factor, most of the gain is 5-7 clicks.

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v414/Toysrme/Answers/AFM-4.jpg

You'll gain mid rpm range power. You'll also gain top rpm range power under a high load (i.e. top gear-top speed runs). Don't be surprised if you rev back to back in park and it's a tad slower from less fuel -> it will be noticeably faster on the street when there is a load on the engine.

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 09:01 PM
BRAKE LININGS

Q: What are the best brake linings for my Tacoma? Are there any things I should watch out for in changing them?

A: The Toyota OEM linings are very good and I recommend them for most uses - I use them exclusively. They are quiet, have good life, and don't trash the rotor/drum. Ceramic linings have been recommended to me, but I haven't tried them. Cheap asbestos linings generally sound like Cooter's Hell when you are stopping and should be used only if you and anyone riding in your car are deaf.

You should refinish the rotors if there are any grooves worn in the rotors or if there is any side-to-side wobble (runout). Drums always have to be refinished.

Also, be careful not to inhale brake dust from the old pads. Don't blow the dust with your lungs or compressed air to clean the brake parts. Clean the old backing plate, rotor, caliper, etc. with a spray brake cleaner. Use a drip pan to catch the run-off.

Always use new springs for the drum brakes. Use high temperature brake grease on all pivot points in drum braking systems.

Don't get any liquid on the brake linings or they will be garbage. Don't even touch the linings with your fingers.

Watch for wetness around the wheel cylinders, particularly inside behind the dust shields. The cylinders have to be honed or replaced if they leak at all.

Flush your brake system periodically to get rid of water and contaminents. These lower the boiling point of the brake fluid and can cause brake failure or pitting of the wheel cylinders.

Back off the star wheels on the bottom of the drum mechanism to allow the brake linings to clear the ridge created by drug wear. Use two screwdrivers or other bladed tools that fit in the oval opening covered by the rubber boot.

Last but not least, after you change your linings, drive your car like your grandmother for a week or two. This finish cures the brake lining material and will give you a much longer brake life.

PULSATING BRAKE PEDAL

Q:I 've noticed this problem for quite a while. The brake pedal shakes (vibrates) when braking at or above 50 mph. It happens every time i go down a long slope or on highway. The streering wheel shakes a little bit too. It does not happen below 40 mph. I change the brake pads (front) this March and it did not fix the problem. So what can be the problem? Thanks

A: Your brake rotor runout is excessive. basically they're warped

Q: Then what work needs to be done? Replace the rotors or resurface them?

A: You are correct; resurface them if there is enough meat left on them (wherever you take them to be cut will check the thickness first) or replace them with new ones. If there is plenty of pad left, just sand the pads lightly so they will seat better to the new rotor surface

How brakes work:
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/brake.htm

How disc brakes work:
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/disc-brake.htm

How drum brakes work:
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/drum-brake.htm

How anti-lock brakes work:
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/anti-lock-brake.htm

Here are general discussions on the topic:

http://www.babcox.com/editorial/ic/ic20316.htm
http://www.asbestos-institute.ca/safemanual/section5/section5d.html
http://www.mightyautoparts.com/pdf/articles/tt68.pdf

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 10:02 PM
TIRE SIZE COMPENSATION CALCULATOR

Q: Please tell me how to calculate the speedometer error if I go to different than stock tire diameters.

A: Here is a calculator just for that purpose:
http://www.miata.net/garage/tirecalc.html

Brian R.
06-27-2005, 10:31 PM
REPROGRAMMING REMOTE ENTRY
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=126305&page=1&pp=15

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=73219

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=383114

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=367962

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=348186

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=360771

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=172063

Brian R.
06-28-2005, 09:03 AM
ECT

Q: What does the button on my console labeled "ECT" do?

A: ECT is an abreviation for "Electronically Controlled Transmission". The button has two positions, "POWER" and "NORMAL". When switched to the "POWER" position, the ECM shifts the transmission at higher engine rpm in every gear. It also affects the function of the torque converter lock-up mechanism.

For further discussion see the following thread:

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=128958&page=1&pp=15

With regard to the stiffness of the upshifts, in all of the transmissions, as the throttle angle rises, more pressure is built up. This does not change the maximum pressure exerted during the shift, or while in gear. Thus the shift stiffness is unchanged in either ECT mode.

(Thanks to Toysrme for adding the above clarification on shift stiffness.)

OVERDRIVE

Q: What is the function of the overdrive? Is it a separate unit or actually part of my transmission? What happens when I push the button on the side of my shifter and light the "O/D OFF" indicator?

A: The overdrive is the highest (lowest numerically) gear in your transmission, by definition higher geared than 1:1 or direct drive - and it is integral with your transmission. When you push the button on the shifter and light the "O/D OFF" indicator, you prevent your transmission from engaging the O/D gear and it stays in the next highest gear.

Preventing OD from engaging is useful when you are in stop and go traffic and never get above 30 mph for any length of time. Then, the only time you engage the O/D gear is when you let off the accelerator - causing the transmission to make an unnecessary upshift when you are slowing down. It is also useful to disengage the O/D when you are in hilly country or towing and find your transmission is not able to stay in the high gear. It is better to maintain the next highest gear by turning off the O/D than to have the transmission searching for the correct gear.

How an automatic transmission works:
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/automatic-transmission.htm

Brian R.
06-28-2005, 03:55 PM
TSBs: TECH SERVICE BULLETINS

Q: Where can I find Tech Service Bulletins for my Tacoma?
A: http://www.alldata.com/tsb/Toyota/index-issue.html

http://www.edmunds.com/maintenance/MaintenanceServlet

http://www-odi.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/tsb/

http://www.infotraxx.com/?a_aid=15&a_bid=3

http://www.alldata.com/recalls/

Brian R.
06-30-2005, 01:34 AM
CHECK ENGINE LIGHT IN '98 Tacoma

Q: My '98 Tacoma check engine light has just come on recently. I've never seen it on until now and I don't know why. The car has 148k miles on it, what could be the problem? How can I check the code? Is there a reset button or anything I can do? Any help is appreciated. TIA.

A: Your truck is OBDII compliant which means you need a code reader.

http://www.iequus.com/assets/manuals/3100E.pdf

Q: Can I purchase a reader at any autoshop? How much are they?

A: You need an adapter that is specific for Toyota. Most readers will work with the appropriate adapter. I have had trouble finding the right adapter at my local stores. I think online is the best place to buy one.

I think prices are $100 on up. One that monitors engine functions is particularly useful - feeds data into computer like notebook or hand-held pc.

If you live near an Autozone store, they will check it for free.

Q: I went to a Autozone store and they said that they could only do 96 and up. Is that true?

A: 1996 and later cars have to be OBDII compliant. Toyota made some of their 1994 and 1995 vehicles OBDII compliant. If your car is, then point it out to him and they should check it. Check your emissions sticker under the hood. It will tell you if your car is OBDII compliant or not.

Brian R.
06-30-2005, 01:44 AM
OBDII DTC CODES

A primer on OBDII DTC codes:
http://www.overboost.com/story.asp?id=1286&r=1

Here are a list of generic and Toyota-specific DTC codes from http://www.iequus.com/assets/manuals/3100E.pdf

DTC Codes in BOLD have troubleshooting guide at the end of this post.

The above document also provided Manufacturer-specific DTC codes for Honda, General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler.

DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE DEFINITIONS
The following Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions lists represent the most complete information currently available. OBD II is an evolving system, and new codes and definitions will be added as the system matures. ALWAYS consult the vehicle’s service manual for code definitions not included in these lists.

The following code definition lists provide both Generic Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions and Manufacturer-Specific Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions for the following vehicles:

• OBD II Powertrain “GENERIC” (P0XXX) Diagnostic Trouble Codes. OBD II Generic Diagnostic Trouble Codes and their definitions apply to all makes and models of import and domestic vehicles that are “OBD II COMPLIANT”.

• OBD II Powertrain “MANUFACTURER SPECIFIC” (P1XXX) Diagnostic Trouble Codes. OBD II Manufacturer-Specific Diagnostic Trouble Codes and their definitions apply only to vehicles produced by the specific manufacturer (Ford, GM, Toyota etc.).

GENERIC OBD II CODE DEFINITIONS
P0010 "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Circuit (Bank 1)
P0011 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 1)
P0012 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 1)
P0013 "B" Camshaft Position - Actuator Circuit (Bank 1)
P0014 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 1)
P0015 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 1)
P0020 "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Circuit (Bank 2)
P0021 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 2)
P0022 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 2)
P0023 "B" Camshaft Position - Actuator Circuit (Bank 2)
P0024 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 2)
P0025 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 2)
P0030 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0031 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0032 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0033 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit
P0034 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit Low
P0035 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit High
P0036 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0037 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0038 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0042 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0043 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0044 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0050 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0051 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0052 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0056 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0057 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0058 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0062 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0063 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0064 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0065 Air Assisted Injector Control Range/Performance
P0066 Air Assisted Injector Control Circuit or Circuit Low
P0067 Air Assisted Injector Control Circuit High
P0070 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0071 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Range/Performance
P0072 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0073 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit High Input
P0074 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0075 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 1)
P0076 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0077 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0078 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 1)
P0079 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0080 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0081 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 2)
P0082 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0083 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 2)
P0084 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 2)
P0085 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0086 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 2)

P0100 Mass or Volume Air Flow Circuit Malfunction
P0101 Mass or Volume Circuit Range Performance Problem
P0102 Mass or Volume Circuit Low Input
P0103 Mass or Volume Circuit High Input
P0104 Mass or Volume Circuit Intermittent
P0105 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Malfunction
P0106 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0107 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Low Input
P0108 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit High Input
P0109 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Intermittent
P0110 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Malfunction
P0111 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0112 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Low Input
P0113 Intake Air Temperature Circuit High Input
P0114 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Intermittent
P0115 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Malfunction
P0116 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0117 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Low Input
P0118 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit High Input
P0119 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Intermittent
P0120 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Malfunction
P0121 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0122 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Low Input
P0123 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit High Input
P0124 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Intermittent
P0125 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Closed Loop Fuel Control
P0126 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Stable Operation
P0127 Intake Air Temperature Too High
P0128 Coolant Thermostat (Coolant Temperature Below Thermostat Regulating Temperature)
P0130 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0131 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0132 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0133 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0134 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0135 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0136 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0137 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0138 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0139 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0140 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0141 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0142 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0143 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0144 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0145 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0146 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0147 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0148 Fuel Delivery Error
P0149 Fuel Timing Error
P0150 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0151 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0152 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0153 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0154 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0155 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0156 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0157 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0158 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0159 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0160 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0161 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0162 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0163 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0164 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0165 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0166 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0167 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0168 Fuel Temperature Too High
P0169 Incorrect Fuel Composition
P0170 Fuel Trim Malfunction (Bank 1)
P0171 System too Lean (Bank 1)
P0172 System too Rich (Bank 1)
P0173 Fuel Trim Malfunction (Bank 2)
P0174 System too Lean (Bank 2)
P0175 System too Rich (Bank 2)
P0176 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0177 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0178 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0179 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit High Input
P0180 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Malfunction
P0181 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0182 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Low Input
P0183 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit High Input
P0184 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Intermittent
P0185 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Malfunction
P0186 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0187 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Low Input
P0188 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit High Input
P0189 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Intermittent
P0190 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0191 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0192 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0193 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0194 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0195 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Malfunction
P0196 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Range/Performance
P0197 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Low
P0198 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor High
P0199 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Intermittent

P0200 Injector Circuit Malfunction
P0201 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 1
P0202 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 2
P0203 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 3
P0204 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 4
P0205 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 5
P0206 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 6
P0207 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 7
P0208 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 8
P0209 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 9
P0210 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 10
P0211 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 11
P0212 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 12
P0213 Cold Start Injector 1 Malfunction
P0214 Cold Start Injector 2 Malfunction
P0215 Engine Shutoff Solenoid Malfunction
P0216 Injection Timing Control Circuit Malfunction
P0217 Engine Overtemp Condition
P0218 Transmission Over Temperature Condition
P0219 Engine Overspeed Condition
P0220 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Malfunction
P0221 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0222 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Low Input
P0223 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit High Input
P0224 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Intermittent
P0225 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Malfunction
P0226 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0227 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Low Input
P0228 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit High Input
P0229 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Intermittent
P0230 Fuel Pump Primary Circuit Malfunction
P0231 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit Low
P0232 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit High
P0233 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit Intermittent
P0234 Engine Overboost Condition
P0235 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit Malfunction
P0236 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0237 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit Low
P0238 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit High
P0239 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit Malfunction
P0240 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0241 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit Low
P0242 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit High
P0243 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A Malfunction
P0244 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A Range/Performance
P0245 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A Low
P0246 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A High
P0247 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B Malfunction
P0248 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B Range/Performance
P0249 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B Low
P0250 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B High
P0251 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Malfunction
P0252 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Range/Performance
P0253 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Low
P0254 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam High
P0255 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Intermitted
P0256 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Malfunction
P0257 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Range/Performance
P0258 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Low
P0259 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam High
P0260 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Intermitted
P0261 Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit Low
P0262 Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit High
P0263 Cylinder 1 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0264 Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit Low
P0265 Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit High
P0266 Cylinder 2 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0267 Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit Low
P0268 Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit High
P0269 Cylinder 3 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0270 Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit Low
P0271 Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit High
P0272 Cylinder 4 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0273 Cylinder 5 Injector Circuit Low
P0274 Cylinder 5 Injector Circuit High
P0275 Cylinder 5 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0276 Cylinder 6 Injector Circuit Low
P0277 Cylinder 6 Injector Circuit High
P0278 Cylinder 6 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0279 Cylinder 7 Injector Circuit Low
P0280 Cylinder 7 Injector Circuit High
P0281 Cylinder 7 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0282 Cylinder 8 Injector Circuit Low
P0283 Cylinder 8 Injector Circuit High
P0284 Cylinder 8 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0285 Cylinder 9 Injector Circuit Low
P0286 Cylinder 9 Injector Circuit High
P0287 Cylinder 9 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0288 Cylinder 10 Injector Circuit Low
P0289 Cylinder 10 Injector Circuit High
P0290 Cylinder 10 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0291 Cylinder 11 Injector Circuit Low
P0292 Cylinder 11 Injector Circuit High
P0293 Cylinder 11 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0294 Cylinder 12 Injector Circuit Low
P0295 Cylinder 12 Injector Circuit High
P0296 Cylinder 12 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0298 Engine Oil Over Temperature

P0300 Random/Multiple Cylinder Misfire Detected
P0301 Cylinder 1 Misfire Detected
P0302 Cylinder 2 Misfire Detected
P0303 Cylinder 3 Misfire Detected
P0304 Cylinder 4 Misfire Detected
P0305 Cylinder 5 Misfire Detected
P0306 Cylinder 6 Misfire Detected
P0307 Cylinder 7 Misfire Detected
P0308 Cylinder 8 Misfire Detected
P0309 Cylinder 9 Misfire Detected
P0310 Cylinder 10 Misfire Detected
P0311 Cylinder 11 Misfire Detected
P0312 Cylinder 12 Misfire Detected
P0313 Misfire Detected with Low Fuel
P0314 Single Cylinder Misfire (Cylinder not specified)
P0320 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Malfunction
P0321 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Range/Performance
P0322 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit No Signal
P0323 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Intermittent
P0324 Knock Control System Error
P0325 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0326 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0327 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Low Input (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0328 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit High Input (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0329 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Intermittent (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0330 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2)
P0331 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0332 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)
P0333 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit High Input (Bank 2)
P0334 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)
P0335 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Malfunction
P0336 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0337 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Low Input
P0338 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit High Input
P0339 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Intermittent
P0340 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0341 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0342 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0343 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit High Input
P0344 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0345 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit (Bank 2)
P0346 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0347 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)
P0348 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit High Input (Bank 2)
P0349 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)
P0350 Ignition Coil Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0351 Ignition Coil A Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0352 Ignition Coil B Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0353 Ignition Coil C Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0354 Ignition Coil D Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0355 Ignition Coil E Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0356 Ignition Coil F Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0357 Ignition Coil G Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0358 Ignition Coil H Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0359 Ignition Coil I Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0360 Ignition Coil J Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0361 Ignition Coil K Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0362 Ignition Coil L Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0365 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit (Bank 1)
P0366 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0367 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Low Input (Bank 1)
P0368 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit High Input (Bank 1)
P0369 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent (Bank 1)
P0370 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Malfunction
P0371 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Too Many Pulses
P0372 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Too Few Pulses
P0373 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Intermittent/ Erratic Pulses
P0374 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A No Pulses
P0375 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Malfunction
P0376 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Too Many Pulses
P0377 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Too Few Pulses
P0378 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Intermittent/ Erratic Pulses
P0379 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B No Pulses
P0380 Glow Plug/Heater Circuit Malfunction
P0381 Glow Plug/Heater Indicator Circuit Malfunction
P0382 Glow Plug/Heater Circuit "B" Malfunction
P0385 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Malfunction
P0386 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0387 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Low Input
P0388 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit High Input
P0389 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Intermittent
P0390 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit (Bank 2)
P0391 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0392 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)
P0393 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit High Input (Bank 2)
P0394 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)

P0400 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Malfunction
P0401 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Insufficient Detected
P0402 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Excessive Detected
P0403 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Circuit Malfunction
P0404 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Circuit Range/Performance
P0405 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor A Circuit Low
P0406 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor A Circuit High
P0407 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor B Circuit Low
P0408 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor B Circuit High
P0409 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "A" Circuit
P0410 Secondary Air Injection System Malfunction
P0411 Secondary Air Injection System Incorrect Flow Detected
P0412 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve A Circuit Malfunction
P0413 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve A Circuit Open
P0414 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve A Circuit Shorted
P0415 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve B Circuit Malfunction
P0416 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve B Circuit Open
P0417 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve B Circuit Shorted
P0418 Secondary Air Injection System Relay "A" Circuit Malfunction
P0419 Secondary Air Injection System Relay "B" Circuit Malfunction
P0420 Catalyst System Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0421 Warm Up Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0422 Main Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0423 Heated Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0424 Heated Catalyst Temperature Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0425 Catalyst Temperature Sensor (Bank 1)
P0426 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0427 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Low Input (Bank 1)
P0428 Catalyst Temperature Sensor High Input (Bank 1)
P0429 Catalyst Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1)
P0430 Catalyst System Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0431 Warm Up Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0432 Main Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0433 Heated Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0434 Heated Catalyst Temperature Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0435 Catalyst Temperature Sensor (Bank 2)
P0436 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0437 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Low Input (Bank 2)
P0438 Catalyst Temperature Sensor High Input (Bank 2)
P0439 Catalyst Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2)
P0440 Evaporative Emission Control System Malfunction
P0441 Evaporative Emission Control System Incorrect Purge Flow
P0442 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (small leak)
P0443 Evaporative Emission Control System Purge Control Valve Circuit Malfunction
P0444 Evaporative Emission Control System Purge Control Valve Circuit Open
P0445 Evaporative Emission Control System Purge Control Valve Circuit Shorted
P0446 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Control Circuit Malfunction
P0447 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Control Circuit Open
P0448 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Control Circuit Shorted
P0449 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Valve/Solenoid Circuit Malfunction
P0450 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Malfunction
P0451 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Range/Performance
P0452 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Low Input
P0453 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor High Input
P0454 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Intermittent
P0455 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (gross leak)
P0456 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (very small leak)
P0457 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (fuel cap loose/off)
P0460 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0461 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0462 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0463 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit High Input
P0464 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0465 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0466 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0467 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0468 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit High Input
P0469 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0470 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Malfunction
P0471 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Range/Performance
P0472 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Low
P0473 Exhaust Pressure Sensor High
P0474 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Intermittent
P0475 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Malfunction
P0476 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Range/Performance
P0477 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Low
P0478 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve High
P0479 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Intermittent
P0480 Cooling Fan 1 Control Circuit Malfunction
P0481 Cooling Fan 2 Control Circuit Malfunction
P0482 Cooling Fan 3 Control Circuit Malfunction
P0483 Cooling Fan Rationality Check Malfunction
P0484 Cooling Fan Circuit Over Current
P0485 Cooling Fan Power/Ground Circuit Malfunction
P0486 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "B" Circuit
P0487 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Throttle Position Control Circuit
P0488 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Throttle Position Control Range/Performance
P0491 Secondary Air Injection System (Bank 1)
P0492 Secondary Air Injection System (Bank 2)

P0500 Vehicle Speed Sensor Malfunction
P0501 Vehicle Speed Sensor Range/Performance
P0502 Vehicle Speed Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0503 Vehicle Speed Sensor Intermittent/Erratic/High
P0505 Idle Control System Malfunction
P0506 Idle Control System RPM Lower Than Expected
P0507 Idle Control System RPM Higher Than Expected
P0508 Idle Control System Circuit Low
P0509 Idle Control System Circuit High
P0510 Closed Throttle Position Switch Malfunction
P0512 Starter Request Circuit
P0513 Incorrect Immobilizer Key ("Immobilizer" pending SAE J1930 approval)
P0515 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0516 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit Low
P0517 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit High
P0520 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch Circuit Malfunction
P0521 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch Range/Performance
P0522 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch Low Voltage
P0523 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch High Voltage
P0524 Engine Oil Pressure Too Low
P0530 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0531 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0532 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0533 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0534 Air Conditioner Refrigerant Charge Loss
P0540 Intake Air Heater Circuit
P0541 Intake Air Heater Circuit Low
P0542 Intake Air Heater Circuit High
P0544 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit (Bank 1)
P0545 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0546 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0547 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit (Bank 2)
P0548 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0549 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit High (Bank 2)
P0550 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0551 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0552 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0553 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0554 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0560 System Voltage Malfunction
P0561 System Voltage Unstable
P0562 System Voltage Low
P0563 System Voltage High
P0564 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input Signal
P0565 Cruise Control On Signal Malfunction
P0566 Cruise Control Off Signal Malfunction
P0567 Cruise Control Resume Signal Malfunction
P0568 Cruise Control Set Signal Malfunction
P0569 Cruise Control Coast Signal Malfunction
P0570 Cruise Control Accel Signal Malfunction
P0571 Cruise Control/Brake Switch A Circuit Malfunction
P0572 Cruise Control/Brake Switch A Circuit Low
P0573 Cruise Control/Brake Switch A Circuit High
P0574 Cruise Control System - Vehicle Speed Too High
P0575 Cruise Control Input Circuit
P0576 Cruise Control Input Circuit Low
P0577 Cruise Control Input Circuit High
P0578-P0580 Reserved for Cruise Control Codes

P0600 Serial Communication Link Malfunction
P0601 Internal Control Module Memory Check Sum Error
P0602 Control Module Programming Error
P0603 Internal Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM) Error
P0604 Internal Control Module Random Access Memory (RAM) Error
P0605 Internal Control Module Read Only Memory (ROM) Error
P0606 PCM Processor Fault
P0607 Control Module Performance
P0608 Control Module VSS Output "A" Malfunction
P0609 Control Module VSS Output "B" Malfunction
P0610 Control Module Vehicle Options Error
P0615 Starter Relay Circuit
P0616 Starter Relay Circuit Low
P0617 Starter Relay Circuit High
P0618 Alternative Fuel Control Module KAM Error
P0619 Alternative Fuel Control Module RAM/ROM Error
P0620 Generator Control Circuit Malfunction
P0621 Generator Lamp "L" Control Circuit Malfunction
P0622 Generator Field "F" Control Circuit Malfunction
P0623 Generator Lamp Control Circuit
P0624 Fuel Cap Lamp Control Circuit
P0630 VIN Not Programmed or Mismatch - ECM/PCM
P0631 VIN Not Programmed or Mismatch - TCM
P0635 Power Steering Control Circuit
P0636 Power Steering Control Circuit Low
P0637 Power Steering Control Circuit High
P0638 Throttle Actuator Control Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0639 Throttle Actuator Control Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0640 Intake Air Heater Control Circuit
P0645 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit
P0646 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit Low
P0647 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit High
P0648 Immobilizer Lamp Control Circuit ("Immobilizer" pending SAE J1930 approval)
P0649 Speed Control Lamp Control Circuit
P0650 Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) Control Circuit Malfunction
P0654 Engine RPM Output Circuit Malfunction
P0655 Engine Hot Lamp Output Control Circuit Malfunction
P0656 Fuel Level Output Circuit Malfunction
P0660 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit (Bank 1)
P0661 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0662 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0663 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit (Bank 2)
P0664 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0665 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit High (Bank 2)

P0700 Transmission Control System Malfunction
P0701 Transmission Control System Range/Performance
P0702 Transmission Control System Electrical
P0703 Torque Converter/Brake Switch B Circuit Malfunction
P0704 Clutch Switch Input Circuit Malfunction
P0705 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Malfunction (PRNDL Input)
P0706 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0707 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0708 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit High Input
P0709 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0710 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0711 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0712 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0713 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit High Input
P0714 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0715 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0716 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0717 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0718 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0719 Torque Converter/Brake Switch B Circuit Low
P0720 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0721 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0722 Output Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0723 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0724 Torque Converter/Brake Switch B Circuit High
P0725 Engine Speed Input Circuit Malfunction
P0726 Engine Speed Input Circuit Range/Performance
P0727 Engine Speed Input Circuit No Signal
P0728 Engine Speed Input Circuit Intermittent
P0730 Incorrect Gear Ratio
P0731 Gear 1 Incorrect Ratio
P0732 Gear 2 Incorrect Ratio
P0733 Gear 3 Incorrect Ratio
P0734 Gear 4 Incorrect Ratio
P0735 Gear 5 Incorrect Ratio
P0736 Reverse Incorrect Ratio
P0737 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit
P0738 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit Low
P0739 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit High
P0740 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Malfunction
P0741 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Performance or Stuck Off
P0742 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Stuck On
P0743 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Electrical
P0744 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Intermittent
P0745 Pressure Control Solenoid Malfunction
P0746 Pressure Control Solenoid Performance or Stuck Off
P0747 Pressure Control Solenoid Stuck On
P0748 Pressure Control Solenoid Electrical
P0749 Pressure Control Solenoid Intermittent
P0750 Shift Solenoid A Malfunction
P0751 Shift Solenoid A Performance or Stuck Off
P0752 Shift Solenoid A Stuck On
P0753 Shift Solenoid A Electrical
P0754 Shift Solenoid A Intermittent
P0755 Shift Solenoid B Malfunction
P0756 Shift Solenoid B Performance or Stuck Off
P0757 Shift Solenoid B Stuck On
P0758 Shift Solenoid B Electrical
P0759 Shift Solenoid B Intermittent
P0760 Shift Solenoid C Malfunction
P0761 Shift Solenoid C Performance or Stuck Off
P0762 Shift Solenoid C Stuck On
P0763 Shift Solenoid C Electrical
P0764 Shift Solenoid C Intermittent
P0765 Shift Solenoid D Malfunction
P0766 Shift Solenoid D Performance or Stuck Off
P0767 Shift Solenoid D Stuck On
P0768 Shift Solenoid D Electrical
P0769 Shift Solenoid D Intermittent
P0770 Shift Solenoid E Malfunction
P0771 Shift Solenoid E Performance or Stuck Off
P0772 Shift Solenoid E Stuck On
P0773 Shift Solenoid E Electrical
P0774 Shift Solenoid E Intermittent
P0775 Pressure Control Solenoid "B"
P0776 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Performance or Stuck Off
P0777 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Stuck On
P0778 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Electrical
P0779 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Intermittent
P0780 Shift Malfunction
P0781 1-2 Shift Malfunction
P0782 2-3 Shift Malfunction
P0783 3-4 Shift Malfunction
P0784 4-5 Shift Malfunction
P0785 Shift/Timing Solenoid Malfunction
P0786 Shift/Timing Solenoid Range/Performance
P0787 Shift/Timing Solenoid Low
P0788 Shift/Timing Solenoid High
P0789 Shift/Timing Solenoid Intermittent
P0790 Normal/Performance Switch Circuit Malfunction
P0791 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit
P0792 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0793 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0794 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0795 Pressure Control Solenoid "C"
P0796 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Performance or Stuck Off
P0797 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Stuck On
P0798 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Electrical
P0799 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Intermittent

P0801 Reverse Inhibit Control Circuit Malfunction
P0803 1-4 Upshift (Skip Shift) Solenoid Control Circuit Malfunction
P0804 1-4 Upshift (Skip Shift) Lamp Control Circuit Malfunction
P0805 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit
P0806 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0807 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Low
P0808 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit High
P0809 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0810 Clutch Position Control Error
P0811 Excessive Clutch Slippage
P0812 Reverse Input Circuit
P0813 Reverse Output Circuit
P0814 Transmission Range Display Circuit
P0815 Upshift Switch Circuit
P0816 Downshift Switch Circuit
P0817 Starter Disable Circuit
P0818 Driveline Disconnect Switch Input Circuit
P0820 Gear Lever X-Y Position Sensor Circuit
P0821 Gear Lever X Position Circuit
P0822 Gear Lever Y Position Circuit
P0823 Gear Lever X Position Circuit Intermittent
P0824 Gear Lever Y Position Circuit Intermittent
P0825 Gear Lever Push-Pull Switch (Shift Anticipate)
P0830 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit
P0831 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit Low
P0832 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit High
P0833 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit
P0834 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit Low
P0835 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit High
P0836 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit
P0837 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit Range/Performance
P0838 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit Low
P0839 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit High
P0840 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit
P0841 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0842 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Low
P0843 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit High
P0844 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Intermittent
P0845 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit
P0846 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P0847 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Low
P0848 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit High
P0849 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Intermittent

TOYOTA-SPECIFIC OBD II CODE DEFINITIONS
P1100 BARO Sensor Circuit malfunction
P1120 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P1121 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Range/Performance Problem
P1125 Throttle Control Motor Circuit Malfunction
P1126 Magnetic Clutch Circuit Malfunction
P1127 ETCS Actuator Power Source Circuit Malfunction
P1128 Throttle Control Motor Lock Malfunction
P1129 Electric Throttle Control System Malfunction
P1130 Air-Fuel Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P1133 Air-Fuel Sensor Circuit Response Malfunction
P1135 Air-Fuel Sensor Heater Circuit Response Malfunction
P1150 A/F Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Malfunction
P1153 A./F Sensor Circuit Response Malfunction
P1155 A/F Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction

P1200 Fuel Pump Relay Circuit Malfunction

P1300 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 1
P1305 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 2 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1310 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 2 (Except 1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1310 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 3 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1315 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 4 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1320 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 5 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1325 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 6 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1330 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 7 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1335 No CKP Sensor Signal Engine Running
P1340 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 8 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1346 VVT Sensor /Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Problem (Bank 1)
P1349 VVT System Malfunction

P1400 Sub-Throttle Position Sensor Malfunction
P1401 Sub-Throttle Position Sensor Range/Performance Problem
P1405 Turbo Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P1406 Turbo Pressure Sensor Range/Performance Problem
P1410 EGR Valve Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P1411 EGR Valve Position Sensor Circuit Ranger/Performance

P1500 Starter Signal Circuit Malfunction
P1510 Boost Pressure Control Circuit Malfunction
P1511 Boost Pressure Low Malfunction
P1512 Boost Pressure High Malfunction
P1520 Stop Lamp Switch Signal Malfunction
P1565 Cruise Control Main Switch Circuit Malfunction

P1600 ECM BATT Malfunction
P1605 Knock Control CPU Malfunction
P1630 Traction Control System Malfunction
P1633 ECM Malfunction ECTS Circuit
P1645 Body ECU Malfunction
P1652 IACV Control Circuit Malfunction
P1656 OCV Circuit Malfunction
P1658 Waste Gate Valve Control Circuit Malfunction
P1661 EGR Circuit Malfunction
P1662 EGR By-Pass Valve Control Circuit Malfunction
P1690 OCV Circuit Malfunction
P1692 OCV Open Malfunction
P1693 OCV Closed Malfunction

P1780 PNP Switch Malfunction

****************************

TROUBLESHOOTING SOME COMMON CODES

P0325
No knock sensor 1 signal to ECM with engine speed 2,000 rpm or more.

Possible Problems
Open or short in knock sensor 1 circuit <= Most likely problem. Check sensor connector for good connection and check wire for damage. Wire is easily damaged when head is removed or similar repair work has been accomplished. Sensor can be tested with ohmmeter. There should be no continuity between the sensor terminal and the sensor body. Replace if there is continuity.
Knock sensor 1 loosness - tighten sensor
ECM

P0330
No knock sensor 2 signal to ECM with engine speed 2,000 rpm or more.

Possible Problems
Open or short in knock sensor 2 circuit <= Most likely problem.Check sensor connector for good connection and check wire for damage. Wire is easily damaged when head is removed or similar repair work has been accomplished. Sensor can be tested with ohmmeter. There should be no continuity between the sensor terminal and the sensor body. Replace if there is continuity.
Knock sensor 2 loosness - tighten sensor
ECM

P0401
After the engine is warmed up, the intake manifold absolute pressure is larger than the value calculated by the ECM while the EGR system is ON (2 trip detection logic).

Possible Problems
EGR valve stuck closed <= Most common Clean EGR valve
EGR Vacuum Switching Valve (VSV)
Open or short in VSV circuit for EGR
EGR valve position sensor open or short circuit
Vacuum or EGR hose disconnected
EGR valve position sensor
Manifold absolute pressure sensor malfunction
ECM

P0402
After the engine is warmed up, conditions (a) and (b) continue.

(a) The intake manifold absolute pressure is larger than the value calculated by the ECM while the EGR system is ON.

(b) Misfiring is detected during idling (2 trip detection logic).

Possible Problems
EGR valve stuck open <= Most common Clean EGR valve
Vacuum or EGR hose is connected to wrong post
Manifold absolute pressure sensor malfunction
ECM

P0440
The fuel tank pressure is atmospheric pressure after the vehicle is driven for 20 min (2 trip detection logic).

Possible Problems
Fuel tank cap incorrectly installed <= Most common
Fuel tank cap cracked or damaged (Toyota part only)
Bad vapor pressure sensor/circuit
Vacuum hose cracked, holed, blocked, damaged or disconnected
Hose or tube cracked, holed, damaged, or loose
Fuel tank/filler neck cracked, holed, or damaged
Charcoal canister cracked, holed, or damaged (collision)

In above description, check hoses between vapor pressur sensor and VSV for vapor pressure sensor and charcoal canister. Also, hose between charcoal canister and fuel tank.


P0441 and/or P0446

Possible Problems
Open or short in VSV circuit for vapor pressure sensor
VSV for vapor pressure sensor
Open or short in vapor pressure sensor circuit
Vapor pressure sensor
Open or short in VSV circuit for EVAP
VSV for EVAP
Vacuum hose cracks, hole, blocked, damaged or disconnected
Charcoal canister cracks, hole, or damaged

(P0446 is not normally associated with a loose or non-sealing gas cap. A loose or non-sealing gas cap triggers P0440)

1. Check the VSV connector for EVAP, VSV connector for vapor pressure sensor and vapor pressure sensor connector for looseness and disconnection

2. Check the vacuum hose between intake manifold and VSV for EVAP, VSV for EVAP and charcoal canister, charcoal canister and VSV for vapor pressure sensor, and VSV for vapor pressure sensor and vapor pressure sensor. Check these hoses for correct connection, looseness, cracks, holes, damage, and blockage.

3. Check voltage between terminals VC and E2 of ECM connector (4.5-5.5 V). (replace ECM if faulty)

4. Check voltages between terminals PTNK and E2 of ECM connector while applying vacuum to vapor pressure sensor (2.9-3.7 V).

If faulty, check for open and short in harness and connector between vapor pressure sensor and ECM. If ok at this point, replace vapor pressure sensor.

If voltage above is ok, Check VSV for EVAP. When ECM terminal EVP is grounded (ignition "ON"), Air should flow in pipe E (inboard on tube) on VSV and out F (outboard on tube) on VSV (Don't use high pressure air for this test). When EVP is not grounded, air does not flow in E and out F.

5. Check operation of VSV for EVAP. Remove VSV from engine. Check that there is continuity between the two terminals (30-34 ohms). If there is no continuity, replace VSV for EVAP.

Check that there is no continuity between either terminal and body. If there is continuity, replace VSV for EVAP.

Check that air does not flow from inner port (E) to outboard port (F).

Check that air flows from port E to F when you apply battery voltage across terminals. If no air flows, replace VSV for EVAP.

6. Check the vacuum hose between intake manifold and VSV for EVAP, and VSV for EVAP and charcoal canister. Check as above.

7. Check for open or short in harness and connector between EFI main-relay and VSV for EVAP and ECM. If faulty, repair or replace harness or connector. If ok, check and replace ECM.

8. Check VSV for vapor pressure sensor. When ECM terminal TPC is grounded (ignition "ON"), Air should flow in pipe E (inboard on tube) on VSV and out F (outboard on tube) on VSV. When TPC is not grounded, air flows out G (outside of connector).

If ok, check and replace charcoal canister.

If not functioning correctly, check function of VSV for vapor pressure sensor. Remove from engine.
Check that there is continuity between the terminals (33-39 ohms). Replace the VSV if there is no continuity.

Check that air flows from port E (inboard in tube) to port G (side of connector).

Check that air flows from port E to port F (outboard in tube) when battery voltage is applied across terminals. Replace VSV if function is incorrect.

9. If good, Check the vacuum hose between charcoal canister and VSV for vapor pressure sensor, and vapor pressure sensor and VSV for vapor pressure sensor - check as above.

11. Check for open and short in harness and connector between EFI main replay and VSV for vapor pressure sensor and ECM.

Brian R.
07-01-2005, 10:10 AM
ENGINE PARTS LOCATION

Q: Where is my PCV valve? I have a 1999 V6 Tacoma and I have no clue.

A: Try Autozone Repair Information - click on "Component Location":

http://www1.autozone.com/servlet/UiBroker?ForwardPage=/az/repair_info/repair_info.jsp

What Brand of Air Filter Performs Best?
Here is a study of a number of brands of air filters using ISO 5011:
http://home.usadatanet.net/~jbplock/ISO5011/SPICER.htm

Power Steering Fluid Change
Here is a procedure from toyotanation with pics:
http://www.toyotanation.com/forum/t19334.html

Oil Weight Recommendation
Use 5W-30 oil under all conditions unless you live in Arizona, Southern Texas, Fargo, etc. There is a significant benefit to getting the oil flowing immediately after start-up.

Replacing Engine Coolant.
Make sure you get all the air out of the system before you cap the radiator. Run the engine at idle with the radiator cap off and add coolant as necessary to keep the radiator full of coolant. Once the engine reaches operating temperature and the coolant begins to overflow, replace the radiator cap and fill the coolant reservoir to the hot line. Check the coolant level in the reservoir after the next time you drive it and it has had a chance to cool down.

Valve Clearance Adjustment
In general, you don't have to adjust the valve clearances in these engines unless you have modified the valve train in some way. Leave well-enough alone unless you have a specific need.

Drive Shaft Boots Preventive Maintenance
Spray them with silicone lubricant (WD-40 has also been recommended to me) every time you are under the car for an oil change. This will prevent them from drying out and they will last forever. Cracked and leaking boots are common after 6-8 years without some treatment and replacing the half-shafts because of this is expensive.

Replacing Transmission Fluid
It is preferable to flush the transmission and replace all the fluid this way, rather than just draining the small amount of fluid in the pan. The vast majority of the transmission fluid is trapped in the torque converter and the valve body and is not changed by draining the pan only. I have been told that it is unnecessary to change the filter in the transmission. It is wire mesh and only meant to keep chunks of stuff out of the valve body.

If your serious about transmission maintenance, try this link for parts and transmission repair manuals:

http://www.drivetrain.com/autotransoverhaulkits.html

General Maintenance
Always use a torque wrench to tighten fasteners to the recommended torque value. A pair of torque wrenches (one large and one small) are indespensible for auto maintenance, particularly when you have an aluminum engine/head. Two torque wrenches I recommend (or their equivalent) are:

http://www.sears.com/sr/javasr/product.do?BV_SessionID=@@@@1796327765.1120232008@ @@@&BV_EngineID=ccciaddfdegmkefcegecegjdghldghg.0&pid=00944595000&vertical=TOOL
http://www.sears.com/sr/javasr/product.do?BV_UseBVCookie=Yes&vertical=TOOL&pid=00944593000

These are micrometer-style torque wrenches. You dial in the required torque and then the wrench clicks strongly when you exert the force necessary to tighten the bolt. To keep their accuracy, store them with the torque setting on a very low value. You can pay alot more for better wrenches, but these are more than adequate. Evenness of torque around a bolt pattern is more important that the actual torque value of the pattern.

Don't extend the lever arm of a torque wrench with a crow's foot or other device. If you make the socket end of the torque wrench longer, you increase the torque applied to the bolt. If you have to use a lengthening adapter, use it at a 90 degree angle to the torque wrench shaft.

Also, always make sure you are tightening a bolt or nut with lubricated threads (oil for steel hole, antiseize compound for aluminum hole). Bolts always have to go into clean holes. Run a flat-bottom tap into all holes that won't accept a bolt hand-tight to the bottom. Follow tightening sequences when provided - tighten gradually in three steps 1/3, 2/3, then recommended torque over entire bolt pattern.

Tighten bolts in a bolt pattern only loosely until all the bolts have been inserted and are threaded into the holes. If you tighten some down prematurely, it will be very difficult or impossible to insert all the bolts and you will have to loosen the tight bolts anyway.

Brian R.
07-01-2005, 09:43 PM
GETTING RID OF BINDING STOCK ANTENNA

Q: My antenna won't go down the way it should. Is there a cheap fix for this?

A: Some guys install a Honda S2000 antenna in place of the stock one.

See this article:
http://www.toyotanation.com/forum/t65507.html


HAZY HEADLIGHT COVERS

Q: My headlight covers are so hazy, I had to buy HID lights just so I would have enough light to drive buy. What can I do to polish them?

A: See the solutions posted in this thread:

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=230436

Brian R.
07-01-2005, 10:52 PM
KNOCKING, THUMPING, OR CREAKING SOUND IN REAR/FRONT WHEN GOING OVER BUMPS

Q: I have been dealing with this weird noise for some time. I can hear the noise sounds like two pieces of heavy metal hitting each other. It sounds from the right rear area. It happens more often when speed is low say 30 mph on rough road. On highway, it does not happen as often. Anyone know what it can be?

A: First thing to check is your sway bar (stabilizer bar) bushings. What causes the bushings to wear is when water and salt (or just water) gets into the bushing, it corrodes the surface of the sway bar and the surface becomes rough. This wears away the bushing. To get a long-term fix, you should polish the sway bar with a strip of emory cloth where the bushing rubs and then replace the bushing with a new one. Then the sway bar is smooth and the fix will last longer.

The sway bar bushings are cheap to buy from Toyota ($10/pair) and easy to replace - 30 min at most. When I have bought bushings from Toyota, they even gave me a strip of emory cloth to polish the bar with.

Here's a thread on the subject:
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=291603&page=1&pp=15

Brian R.
07-10-2005, 08:10 PM
REBUILDING YOUR OWN ALTERNATOR

If the brake and charge lights come on during revving of the engine then it's a sign that the carbon alternator brushes require replacing as this is the mileage for them to wear out. In alternators the brushes wear out on average every 140-170 000 miles where on the dashboard the brake & charge light both come on at the same time. About half of the auto electric shops in your local yellow pages sell carbon alternator brushes and copper solenoid starter contacts for about $5/pair.Another way to verify that the alternator is not charging is while the engine is running bring a metal screwdriver or any metal object near the alternator and if the alternator is working properly then it should act like a magnet and grab the screwdriver.

For carbon brushes R&R:

http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/maintenance/alternator_brushes/ http://www.toyotaoffroad.net/afertig/88/alternatorbrushes.htm
http://perso.wanadoo.fr/adherence.4x4/alternateur_kzj.htm
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=166525
http://www.toyotanation.com/forum/showthread.php?threadid=27270&forumid=10
http://www.pirate4x4.com/forum/showthread.php?s=&threadid=26734&highlight=alternator+brush+holder
http://www.bitwalla.com/cruisers/articles/alternator.html
http://www.barneymc.com/toy_root/techtalk/electric/altrnatr.htm

For decoding the dashboard lights:

http://www.powerbase-auto.co.uk/alternator_faults.htm
http://members.1stconnect.com/anozira/SiteTops/energy/Alternator/alternator.htm

Here are part #'s for Toyota alternator carbon brushes and copper solenoid starter contacts which are used in about 95% of all Toyota vehicles.

Toyota alternator Brushes with holder:

Toyota # 27370-35060=$29 CDN
Honda # 31105-PZ1-003
Metro # 39-82003 (www.metroautoinc.com ,Pomona,California)
Unknown brand name # F4019-53035

Alternator brush only (qty:1 brush unless otherwise stated):

AC Delco # E724
AC Delco # E731 (side wire and concave tip)
Ace Electric # DA-61 (brush only),S-5367 (brush holder)
Beck Arnley # 178-1669 (side wire and concave tip)
Beck Arnley # 178-1376
Borg Warner # X580 (side wire and concave tip)
Canadian Tire # 19-2050-6=$4.49/pair
Daihatsu # 27370-87302-000
Daihatsu # 27371-63020-000
Daihatsu # 27371-87501-000
Daihatsu # 27371-70300-000
Echlin # E601=$8.16 CDN/pair (UAP/NAPA)
Echlin # ECHE601
Echlin # EC480
Echlin # ECHE480
GP Sorensen # 255047 (side wire and concave tip)
GM # 94123056
GM # 96054118
Honda # 31144-PD1-004=$9.72
Honda # 31144-PD1-0040
Honda # 31144-PD1-0030
Honda # 31150-PR7-A01
Honda # 31150-PTO-003
Hino Industries # 021660-0390
Hino Industries # 021660-0510
Isuzu # 8-94123-056-0
Isuzu # 8-97032-308-0
Isuzu # 8-97032-310-0
Mazda # 021660-0390
Mazda # 021660-0510
Mazda # KL47-18-W75
Metro # 38-82001(side wire concave tip) (www.metroautoinc.com ,Pomona,California)
Mileage Plus # E601SB
Mitsubishi # MD604474
Mitsubishi # 21660-0510
Niehoff # WA571 (side wire and concave tip)
NipponDenso # 021660-0390
NipponDenso # 021660-0510
Standard # JX-116 (side wire and concave tip)
Subaru # 021660-0390
Subaru # 021660-0510
Suzuki # 31631-82610
Suzuki # 31656-82611
Suzuki # 021660-0510
Toyota # 27370-42010
Toyota # 27370-75060
Toyota # 27371-63020=$5.80 (up to 9105) (side wire and concave tip)
Toyota # 27371-70300=$5.20 (9105-9511)
Toyota # 27371-76004-71
UAP/NAPA # MPEE601SB
Victory Lap # FAX57=$4.49 CDN/pair (Canadian Tire)
Wilson's Electric # 26-29-7534 (side wire and concave tip)=$2.20 each CDN (Diesel Auto Electric)(Parts for Trucks,box of 10 for $3.40 CDN)

Specifications:
Length=15 mm
Width=7 mm
Thickness=5 mm
Lead length=49 mm

These Honda alternators are the same except the pulley must be swapped:

1986-89 Honda Accord (Carb),the EFI can be used but the voltage reg must be swapped
1990-93 Acura Integra

Thanks to SydneyCanada for the above information

Brian R.
07-12-2005, 11:47 PM
MOBILE ELECTRONICS/STEREO INSTALLATION

Q: Where can I find information on how to install a new stereo in my Tacoma?

A: The Install Doctor is a good source:
http://www.installdr.com/

Brian R.
07-13-2005, 12:10 AM
TECHNICAL ARTICLES ON TOYOTA ENGINE SYSTEMS
EXTENSIVE AUTOMOTIVE INFORMATION LINKS

Q: Where can I find technical information on my EGR system? I want to modify it and I'd better understand what's going on there first. :)

A: A good source of technical articles and automotive information links is Kevin Sullivan's Autoshop 101 site:

http://www.autoshop101.com/

Here are the titles of his technical articles followed by direct links to the articles:

Technical Articles
Toyota Series - Electrical
Electrical Fundamentals with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h1.pdf

Electrical Circuits with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h2.pdf

Electrical Components with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h3.pdf

Analog vs Digital Meters with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h4.pdf

Wire, Terminal and Connector Repair w/qu.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h5.pdf

Automotive Batteries with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h6.pdf

Toyota Starting Systems with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h7.pdf

Toyota Charging Systems with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h8.pdf

Understanding Toyota Wiring Diagram.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h09e.pdf

Electrical Diagnostic Tools.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h10e.pdf

Diagnosing Body Electrical Problems.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h11e.pdf

Semiconductors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h12.pdf

Transistors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h13.pdf

Computers / Logic Gates with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h14.pdf

Overview of Sensors & Actuators w/quest.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h15.pdf

Electronic Transmission #1 - Operation.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h16.pdf

Electronic Transmission #2 - Diagnosis w/quest.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h17.pdf

Shift Interlock System.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h18.pdf


Technical Articles
Toyota Series - Engine Performance OBDI (pre-1996)
EFI#1 EFI System Overview.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h20.pdf

EFI#2 Air Induction System.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h21.pdf

EFI#3 Fuel Delivery & Injection Controls.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h22.pdf

EFI#4 Ignition System.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h23.pdf

Engine Controls #1 - Input Sensors.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h24.pdf

Engine Controls #2 - ECU/Outputs.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h25.pdf

Engine Controls #3 - Idle Speed Control.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h26.pdf

Engine Controls #4 - Diagnosis.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h27.pdf


Technical Articles
Toyota Series - Engine Performance OBD-II (1996 and newer - some '94 and '95)

Sensors#1 - Mode Sensors and Switches.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h31.pdf

Sensors#2 - Thermistors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h32.pdf

Sensors#3 - Position Sensors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h33.pdf

Sensors#4 - Air Flow Sensors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h34.pdf

Sensors#5 - Pressure Sensors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h35.pdf

Sensors#6 - Speed Sensors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h36.pdf

Sensors#6 - Oxygen / Air Fuel Sensors w/ques.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h37.pdf

Sensors#8 - Knock Sensors with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h38.pdf

Ignition#1 - Ignition Overview w/questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h39.pdf

Ignition#2 - Electronic Spark Advance w/quest.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h40.pdf

Ignition#3 - Distributor / Distributorless w/qu.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h41.pdf

Fuel System#1 - Overview with questions.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h42.pdf

Fuel System#2 - Injection Duration w/ques.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h43.pdf

Fuel System#3 - Closed Loop /Fuel Trim w/qu.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h44.pdf

OBDII#1 - Overview of On-Board Diagnostics.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h46.pdf

OBDII#2 - Serial Data.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h47.pdf

OBDII#3 - Data Interpretation.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h48.pdf

Emission#1 - Chemistry of Combustion.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h55.pdf

Emission#2 - Emission Analysis.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h56.pdf

Emission#3 - Engine Sub Systems.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h57.pdf

Emission#4 - Closed Loop Feedback Systems.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h58.pdf

Emission#5 - Electronic Spark Advance.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h59.pdf

Emission#6 - Idle Speed Control Systems.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h60.pdf

Emission#7 - Exhause Gas Recirculation.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h61.pdf

Emission#8 - Evaporative Emission Control.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h62.pdf

Emission#9 - Positive Crankcase Ventilation.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h63.pdf

Emission#10 - Catalytic Converter.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h64.pdf

Emission#11 - Secondary Air.pdf
http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h65.pdf


Don't ignore the information and links in the "Automotive Links" section. Also, the "Online Bookstore" is useful if you want to get ASE certified.

Brian R.
08-13-2005, 12:41 AM
PROPELLOR SHAFT GREASE FITTINGS

Q: How often should should I lubricate the driveshaft grease fittings on my Tacoma?

A: Driveshaft/propeller shaft lubrication interval is listed in the Toyota scheduled maintenance guide for your truck. 5,000 mi. or 6 months for 2004 models. Applies to Prerunner and all 4 X 4's.
For lubrication procedure and the type grease to use see;
http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/maint...html#driveshaft

DECKPLATE MOD TO AIRBOX
How do I do the deck plate mod and what does it do?

The deck plate mod is done by installing a marine type deck plate in the the air cleaner box to allow more inlet air for higher rpms. It should be good for a little extra horsepower. References for installing a plate:
http://www.toyotaoffroad.net/jnburtman/deckplate.html
http://customtacos.com/tech/index.php?page=index_v2&id=85&c=5
http://www.wattora.com/mods/deckplate/

One source for deckplates:
http://tempress.com/hatches.cfm

INSTALLING A SUPERCHARGER FOR 5VZ-FE
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=408217
http://www.toyotaworld.com/trdsupercharger.html
http://www.gadgetonline.com/4run.htm
http://www.trdusa.com/Default.asp

Brian R.
08-13-2005, 10:58 PM
MODIFYING YOUR E-LOCKER SO THAT YOU CAN USE IT IN 2WD AND 4WDHIGH

http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/minutemods/greywire_mod/

Brian R.
08-15-2005, 11:46 PM
WINDSHIELD SCRATCHES

Q: My windshield has 2 wiper marks from crappy wiper blades. how can i get rid of them? Is there some kind of cleaner that wil bring them off?

A: If you can feel them with your finger nails they will not come out by cleaning, If not too deep you may be able to get the out with some very fine rubbing compound, some people use tooth paste. Do a Google search and see what come up. Be advised, it will require lots of time and effort and still may not work.

Q: Thanks for the reply. The marks are very light. I have some stuff called Plastix from Meguiers. It does an excellent job on plastic getting scratches and oxidation out. Do you think that will work?

A: It shouldn't hurt anything to try the Plastix. If that doesn't help here is an article that describes how to polish out scratches.

http://www.valvoline.com/carcare/articleviewer.asp?pg=ccr20030101wp&print=1

Brian R.
08-23-2005, 11:19 PM
PROGRAMMING TRANSPONDER IGNITION KEYS

Thanks to Sparky at talkaboutautos.com

Q: How do I program a transponder ignition key for my Toyota/Lexus vehicle?

A: 98-01 Toyota/Lexus: The programming sequence for adding another key (Toyota key part number 89785-26020) to the Camry, according to the ILCO key company catalog, and a Toyota maintenance manual I have seen, is as follows: Simultaneously depress and release the brake and accelerator pedals 1 time (one instruction kind of hints that you should hold the pedals down while you insert the master key, the next step). Insert the master key in the ignition, but do not turn it. Within 15 seconds press & release the accelerator pedal 5 times. Then within 20 seconds press & release the brake pedal 6 times. Within 10 seconds remove the master key, and insert the new key. Within 10 seconds press & release the accelerator 1 time. The security light will stay off after 60 to 80 seconds indicating the re-programming was successful. Remove the new key, and depress & release the brake pedal 1 time.

02 TO EARLY-03 Toyota/Lexus: The programming sequence for adding another key (Toyota key part number 89785-26020) to the Camry, according to the key company catalog is as follows: Make sure all windows and doors are closed, and insert the master key in the ignition. Cycle the ignition key ON/OFF 5 times and leave the key in the lock. Open/Close the driver side door 6 times. Remove the original key and insert the new duplicate key, BUT DO NOT TURN THE KEY ON. The theft light will stay off after 60 to 80 seconds indicating the re-programming was successful. Do not laugh while executing this sequence.

MID-03 TO 2004 Toyota/Lexus: Currently there is no (easily available) programming sequence that the customer can use. A new key is used (Toyota key part number 89785-60160) that has a small letter "o" stamped on the brass part of the key up near the handle. Apparently, only the dealer can program in a new transponder code into the ECM via the OBD (On Board Diagnostic) computer.

ACE hardware and others, sell the non-"o" key for much less than $75, but you have to program the ECM in the car yourself. Camelback Toyota charges $150 to supply & program a key for a Mid-03 Toyota/Lexus. Larry Miller Toyota sells the key for $75 and programs it for free. Bell Road Toyota sells the key for $75, but it's not clear if they charge for programming. If the ECM is truly programmed through the OBD, then I think it is only a matter of time before somebody like Pep Boys or Autozone will do it too!

According to the ILCO catalog, all of the key numbers programmed into a 98 to Early-03 ECM (other than the number of the key you are using) can be deleted by using the following sequence: Simultaneously depress & release the brake and accelerator pedals 1 time. Insert a working key into the ignition but do not turn it. Within 15 seconds depress & release the accelerator pedal 6 times. Within 20 seconds depress & release the break pedal 7 times. The security light will flash indicating that all key numbers, other than the one being used, have been deleted from the ECM memory. Within 10 seconds remove the key from the ignition switch. This is now the only key that will work.

Brian Edit: Here's a link to the ILCO catalog:

http://www.kaba-ilco.com/key_systems/pdf/2005_Auto_Truck_Key_Blank_Reference_[2816-E-0205].pdf

An alternative to reprogramming the ECM when you have no programed master key:

Stefan: "I called the parts department at local dealership I usually get parts from (I own a custom body&paint/collision shop) and they told me, that there is a way to get TOYOTA CORP. to actually replace the ECM free of charge, all I have to pay for is two keys @ $41 list price and the labor to swap out the ECM.

The car has to have original ECM it came from the factory with, simple as that!

I called TOYOTA Corp, they asked a few questions and ran a VIN# in their sytem and said my car falls under that category for a FREE ECM!! WOOT!. They said it will take 3-5 business days to mail/ship the ECM to the dealership of my choice, once it gets there, dealership will call me to bring/tow the car in and all I have to pay is for the labor to swap out ECM AND the cost for 2 new keys!, I will update you on the outcome of this situation."

Stefan


INFORMATION ON TRANSPONDER KEYS AND PROGRAMMING THE ECM WHEN THERE ARE NO PROGRAMMED KEYS AVAILABLE (yes, apparently it is possible):

http://www.locksmithcharley.com/transponder.html

Locksmith Charley has the following instructions posted:

These procedures are modified from those published in other forums after several experiences with cars not programming up in an efficient manner. This procedure was developed with the kind assistance of Randy Mize who provides technical support for ILCO’s SDD machine. I also received valuable input on this subject from Mike Labar.

Of primary importance is determining if you have a key that is enrolled in the car’s computer as a “master” key or a “valet” key. The procedure for making this determination is:

1. Positively locate the “security” or “anti-theft” light. This light should blink when there is no key in the ignition or if an unrecognized key is placed into the ignition.

2. Insert the key you have into the ignition – DO NOT TURN ON. There are 3 possible things that may occur:
(a) Security light continues to blink = unrecognized key.
(b) Security light goes off IMMEDIATELY = MASTER key
(c) Security light remains illuminated for 1-3 seconds before going out = VALET key

If you have only a VALET key or an unrecognized key then the ECM will have to be reprogrammed or “flashed” before you are able to add any more keys to the vehicle. The ECM reprogramming (flashing) service can be provided to you by LOCKSMITH CHARLEY (1-602-230-8888 or 1-800-313-5397) at the shop at 2308 E. Indian School Road, Phoenix AZ 85016. If you are not local to the Phoenix area you can ship the ECM to us and we can flash it and send it back to you the same day we receive it.

Once you have determined that you have an enrolled MASTER key you may proceed to either:
(a) delete all other keys from the car’s computer
(b) add an additional MASTER key to the car’s computer.
(c) add an additional VALET key to the car’s computer.

PROCEDURES FOR PROGRAMMING

A - Delete all keys other than present master key
1. Make sure all windows are rolled up and all doors are shut.
2. From outside the car LOCK the car door with the key.
3. From outside the car UNLOCK the car door with the key.
4. Enter vehicle and close the door.
5. Start the car’s engine.
6. Turn engine off and remove key.
7. Place master key in the ignition lock. (DO NOT TURN ON.)
8. Within 15 seconds press and release the gas pedal 6 times.
9. Within 20 seconds, forcefully press and release the brake pedal 7 times. The Security light will blink.
10. Within 10 seconds, remove the master key. All other keys should be deleted from the car’s computer.

B - add an additional MASTER key to the car’s computer
1. Make sure all windows are rolled up and all doors are shut.
2. From outside the car LOCK the car door with the key.
3. From outside the car UNLOCK the car door with the key.
4. Enter vehicle and close the door.
5. Start the car’s engine.
6. Turn engine off and remove key.
7. Place master key in the ignition lock. (DO NOT TURN ON.)
8. Press and release the gas pedal 5 times.
9. Forcefully press and release the brake pedal 6 times.
10. Remove key
11. Place new key in the ignition lock. (DO NOT TURN ON.)
12. Press and release the gas pedal 1 time.
13. Wait (about 1 minute) for security light to stop blinking.
14. Remove new key from the ignition lock.
15. Press brake pedal 1 time to close programming cycle.
16. Wait 15 seconds for programming cycle to end
17. Insert new key into ignition lock and start the vehicle.

C - add an additional VALET key to the car’s computer
1. Make sure all windows are rolled up and all doors are shut.
2. From outside the car LOCK the car door with the key.
3. From outside the car UNLOCK the car door with the key.
4. Enter vehicle and close the door.
5. Start the car’s engine.
6. Turn engine off and remove key.
7. Place master key in the ignition lock. (DO NOT TURN ON.)
8. Press and release the gas pedal 5 times.
9. Forcefully press and release the brake pedal 6 times.
10. Remove key
11. Place new key in the ignition lock. (DO NOT TURN ON.)
12. Press and release the gas pedal 1 time.
13. Wait (about 1 minute) for security light to stop blinking.
14. Remove new key from the ignition lock.
15. Press brake pedal 1 time to close programming cycle.
16. Wait 15 seconds for programming cycle to end
17. Insert new key into ignition lock and start the vehicle.

This information is presented to you as a public service of:
LOCKSMITH CHARLEY
2308 E. Indian School Rd.
Phoenix AZ 85016
(602) 230-8888 / 1-800-313-5397

Here is a discussion of the various types of keys:

http://www.clublexus.com/forums/showthread.php?t=176485

Brian R.
08-24-2005, 10:57 PM
BRAKE LIGHTS COME ON WHEN HEADLIGHTS ARE APPLIED

Q: Just purchased a 96 Tacoma 4x4. Has a few problems that I am working through. Have one that is a real stumper for me. The brake lights work fine during normal daytime driving conditions. When the headlights are turned on the brake lights are on. I have check the wiring and have found nothing shorted together. I see a intergration relay in the wiring diagrams and was interest if anyone might know if this relay sticking would cause my problem. Thanks for any help.

A: The bulbs are probably installed incorrectly. You may have single filament bulb in a socket meant for double filament bulbs, or the correct bulbs may have been forced in backwards.

Brian R.
09-07-2005, 12:31 PM
RECOMMENDATIONS ON INCREASING GAS MILEAGE

Q: What can I do to increase my gas mileage?

A: Make sure you are using a fresh air filter. You may consider getting an oil-wetted filter from TRD or AMSOIL. They are very efficient, reusable after cleaning and re-oiling, and somewhat expensive. They are free-flowing compared with efficient paper filters and you can clean them as often as you like. I clean mine every 10k. The TRD filter is oil-wetted cotton and the AMSOIL filter is oil-wetted double layered plastic open cell foam.

Tweak your AFM (on engines that have them instead of a MAF meter) as shown in:
http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showpost.php?p=3320951&postcount=8
There is probably an optimum setting for gas mileage.

Some people get additional mileage from opening up the air box (deckplate mod or removing the wheel well elbow from the airbox).

I don't believe in cold air intakes. They are a waste of money IMO. Maybe some vehicles have poorly-designed intake systems and are helped by almost any mod. Yours is not one of them.

Your engine may get better mileage with higher octane gas, particularly if you do alot of highway driving. Use higher octane gas for a few tankfuls when you are on a trip, keeping track of the mileage and gas used, and see if that makes any difference. If not, don't waste your money. Say the price of 87 octane is 30 cents cheaper than 89 octane and you get 20% better mileage (from 15 mpg to 18 mpg) with the 89 octane. If the price of gas for the 87 octane is $3.00/gal, then you are paying 10% more per gallon, while saving 20% in gasoline usage. This is a good bargain. If you break even, I would still use the higher octane gas. You have to do the math and the experiment on your truck. At some price, it will be worth it for some percent increase in mileage. In all honesty, you probably won't see a difference in mileage between the octanes, meaning you should use 87 octane. However, it doesn't cost much to try and you should know about it if your truck derives a benefit from the higher octane gas.

Keep an eye on your ignition timing, idle speed, and wheel alignment. A high idle speed will cost you, as well as retarded ignition timing or bad alignment.

Buy road tires. Mud stompers will cost you. I believe that the more noise the tires make on the road, the poorer gas mileage they will give you. Fill the tires with 4-6 more psi than that recommended in your door label. Low tire pressure will cost you. Don't fill the tires above the maximum psi labeled on the tire.

Lowering your truck a couple inches will give you better mileage on the highway.

Off-road driving will cost you. 4WD usage will also cost you, on- or off-road.

Installing manual hubs will make some difference. Each truck will be different in this regard. Manual hubs will keep you from having to rotate the half-shafts and a part of your front differential.

Keep your injectors clean with a fuel additive periodically.

Get any "Check Engine" light problem immediately. Many times you engine will default to a standard condition when a sensor goes bad. It gets you where you're going, but it is far from optimum as far as engine efficiency goes.

Exhaust headers and lower restriction cat converters and mufflers will help your mileage to varying degrees. Buy stuff that you find has helped other owners of your vehicle.

Fill your transfer case and differentials with 75W90 synthetic gear oil. Leave it in longer to partially offset the additional cost. The thicker the gear oil, the more drag on the truck. Lube your propellor shafts often for the same reason with Moly grease.

Use 5W30 oil in your engine - possibly 0W30 or 5W20. I have heard they work fine, but I have not tried them myself. Those lower viscosity oils will certainly make a difference in your gas mileage.

For additional hints and suggestions, see the following links:

http://www.procarcare.com/icarumba/resourcecenter/encyclopedia/icar_resourcecenter_encyclopedia_fuelsaving.asp

http://www.performancempg.com/lubricationnews/better_fuel_mileage.htm

(information on the above two sites authored by ctelsa)

Brian R.
10-20-2005, 09:32 PM
FIXING PAINT CHIPS AND SCRATCHES

Materials
1. Small bottle of the proper Toyota touch up paint and Toyota clear coat, if needed (Toyota metallic finishes are clearcoat; a non-metallic colors were not).
2. DuPont PrepSol (available from autobody supply).
3. Disposable touch-up microbrushes made by ProTouch (from an autobody supply).
4. 3M Perfect-It II Rubbing Compound, Fine Cut (from an autobody supply).
5. Lacquer thinner to keep brush clean.
6. Wet-dry sandpaper: 1000 grit, 1500 grit, and 2000 grit (there is a new product out that is an alternative to wet sanding for use in auto touch ups - check it out at http://www.langka.com).

Procedure - Scratches
Use this procedure for long scratches and for large chips.

1. Use 1000 grit paper and wet-sand the scratch and the area around it. Make sure to use lots of water when sanding. This keeps scratching to a minimum.
2. Use DuPont Prepsol to clean wax off before touch-up.
3. Using microbrush and liberal amounts of paint, touch up the full-length of the scratch. As soon as the paint drys (10 minutes) do another coat. Repeat until you have done sufficient coats to have built a small mound of paint over the length of the scratch.
4. Let dry for 24 hours.
5. Now wet-sand the touched up surface with 1500 grit wet sandpaper. Sand in a front to rear motion since that's the direction the car is painted with, hence: you're going with the grain of the paint. Sand until you have eliminated the mound and any touchup paint outside of the scratch.
6. Clean area thoroughly and let dry.
7. Take a clean microbrush and begin to apply the clearcoat to the area. Don't be afraid to be liberal with it and don't try and keep the clearcoat within the scratch area. Apply approximately 3-4 coats, again until there is a small mound. Let it set and completely dry for 4-5 days.
8. Now, wet sand with 2000 grit wet sand paper. You will begin to see the clearcoated scratch blend into the rest of the paint - thus disappearing. (It produces a very gratifying feeling!)

Procedure - Chips
You can use this abbreviated procedure to fix the many small chips on the hood and front fascia.

1. Use 1000 grit paper and wet-sand the scratch and the area around it. Make sure to use lots of water when sanding. This keeps scratching to a minimum.
2. Use DuPont Prepsol to clean wax off before touch-up.
3. Using microbrush and liberal amounts of paint, touch up the chip. As soon as the paint drys (10 minutes) do another coat. Repeat until you have done sufficient coats to have built a small mound of paint over the expanse of the chip.
4. Let dry for 24 hours.
5. Wet sand with 2000 grit wet sand paper. You will begin to see the touch-up paint blend into the rest of the paint - nearly disappearing. The repairs are not noticable to passersby, and look much better than the chips did.

Note: The clear coat on the flexible plastic parts doesn't rub back as well as the rest of the paint, probably due to the flex agents in the paint..

Adapted from a post to VetteNet by Doug Johnson, and to the Grand Prix mailing list by Paul Berndt.

Brian R.
11-12-2005, 01:21 AM
TOYOTA PARTS CATALOGS

Thanks to SydneyCanada for the following post:

There are several free online Toyota EPC catalogs that you can download that are amazing and I use them all of the time prior to a repair or when trying to cross reference parts:

Here is a post fellow poster (Todd) who posted it on another 4-Runner/Pickup discussion site about 4 years ago:

"There is a newer version of the EPC available for download.
Similar in size to the older version (254MB and 220MB zipped files)
I have them on my personal FTP server (not always running), and they are also on another FTP server.

Address and login for mine:
151.203.109.45 Port 21
Login: t4x4pickup
Password: t4x4pickup

Address and login for the other (usually running 24/7)
ftp.lawvision.net
User: upload
Pass: upload

Apparently they cover 1988 and up vehicles (I haven't unzipped mine yet).

Feel free to upload and download on mine.

Enjoy!
Todd E:zoddoo@hotmail.com"

Here are other places to download the free Toyota EPC catalogs:

http://www.yankeetoys.org/docs.htm
http://oldschool.supracentral.com/htm/epc.htm
http://turbosupras.com/pages/en/pages/technical/epc.htm
http://www.showmesome.info/hilux/info/download_links.htm
http://www.speedtoys.com/%7Earnout
http://www.speedtoys.com/~gemohler/epc
http://membres.lycos.fr/doc4toy4u/setup98_EPC_TOYOTA.zip
http://thepiratebay.org/details.php?id=3355606 (DVD)

For version 1/2002 the passwords are:

Europe 02052311
General 02032511
U.S.A. 02022608
Japan 02071608

Here’s the codes for the 01/2002 disks:

Europe 02022004
General 02022212
U.S.A. 02022608
Japan 01121209

Brian R.
12-27-2005, 01:42 PM
OBDI Diagnosis:

If your car is a '96 or newer, you need an OBDII code reader. If your car is '94-'96, then you have to check under your hood on the emissions sticker to tell if it is OBDII or OBDI. If your car is '93 or older, then it is OBDI.

For OBDII codes, check:

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showpost.php?p=3320962&postcount=15

For OBDI procedure, see the following link:

http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h27.pdf

The codes are:
1 O2A - Oxygen sensor #1
2 O2B - Oxygen sensor #2
3 MAP - manifold absolute pressure sensor
4 CKP - crank position sensor
5 MAP - manifold absolute pressure sensor
6 ECT - water temperature sensor
7 TPS - throttle position sensor
8 TDC - top dead centre sensor
9 CYP - cylinder sensor
10 IAT - intake air temperature sensor
12 EGR - exhaust gas recirculation lift valve
13 BARO - atmospheric pressure sensor
14 IAC (EACV) - idle air control valve
15 Ignition output signal
16 Fuel injectors
17 VSS - speed sensor
19 Automatic transmission lockup control valve
20 Electrical load detector
21 VTEC spool solenoid valve
22 VTEC pressure valve
23 Knock sensor
30 Automatic transmission A signal
31 Automatic transmission B signal
36 traction control found on JDM ecu's
41 Primary oxygen sensor heater
43 Fuel supply system
45 Fuel system too rich or lean
48 LAF - lean air fuel sensor
54 CKF - crank fluctuation sensor
58 TDC sensor #2
61 Primary oxygen sensor
63 Secondary oxygen sensor
65 Secondary oxygen sensor heater
67 Catalyst low efficiency. (same as P0420)
71 random misfire cylinder 1
72 random misfire cylinder 2
73 random misfire cylinder 3
74 random misfire cylinder 4
80 Exhaust Gas Recirculation insufficient flow detected
86 ECT Sensor (Engine Coolant Temperature) circuit range / performance problem
90 Evaporative Emission Control System leak detected in the fuel tank area
91 Evaporative Emission Control System insufficient purge flow

Brian R.
01-11-2006, 11:13 PM
Lockers

Here's an article on installing an electric locker:

http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/tech/electric_locker/

Here's one for an ARB air locker:

http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/tech/arb_locker/

Here's one for a Detroit Softlocker:

http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/tech/detroit_locker/

Here's one for a gearless locker:

http://www.4x4wire.com/reviews/gearless/

Brian R.
05-14-2006, 12:39 PM
TRANSMISSION FLUSH PROCEDURE
Q: How can I flush my transmission fluid without bringing it to a shop?

A: Here is one way posted by popeye08:

(from http://townhall-talk.edmunds.com/direct/view/.ee9950e/4658 )

You can actually change virtually all the fluid in the system using the following method. We have 5 Toyota's in the family, and I have done this to them all at least once.
It takes about an hour. Use whatever fluid is recommended on the dipstick, or in the manual. Our Camry's and Corolla's take Dexron, but the Celica takes Toyota Type IV fluid, available only from Toyota, at about $3.50/qt. Use what's recommended, or you'll be sorry. It's still less expensive than having it done.
1. Drop the pan*, drain the fluid, replace the filter, and reinstall the pan as you usually do.
2. Add 3 quarts of fluid. (or however many quarts of fluid are drained from the pan).
3. Remove the fluid return line at the transmission (usually the upper of the two lines), and place it into a one-gallon milk jug or similar semi-transparent container. You may want to place the container in a box with rags around it so that it doesn't spill.
4. Start the engine, and let about a quart or so of fluid get pumped into the milk jug (about 10-15 seconds).
5. Stop the engine, and add a quart of fluid to the transmission.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until you get new fluid out of the drain line.
You'll use about 8-10 quarts of fluid total, including the 3 you put in at the beginning, so you may need more than one milk jug.
7. Reinstall the drain line to the transmission, start the engine, and check for leaks.
8. With your foot on the brake, put the transmission in each gear, then into Park.
9. Let the car down and check the fluid level on the dipstick. Add fluid if needed to bring it up to the proper level.
10. Take it out for a test drive, and check the fluid level again.

(*One caveat is that it is not nessary to drop the pan. Removing and replacing the filter is not necessary. It is more or less just a screen that doesn't get plugged unless your clutch plates shread or something equally traumatic happens. Brian R.)

Brian R.
05-28-2006, 02:26 PM
The Automotive Repair Industry and How Not to Get Ripped Off

Info thanks to Flatrater (http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/member.php?u=68974).

This is an article I found on the web. Now please read this as it impacts all of the car owners getting their cars worked on in a dealer or an outside shop. This is how it works use it to learn and to prevent getting ripped off by any shop.

"After working over 15 years in the auto repair industry, I have some insight I would like to share with everyone. The auto repair industry has changed quite a bit over the years as more complex automobiles have driven a new kind of mechanic into existence. Some of this has fostered smarter, better trained mechanics. However, it has developed the parts swapping business into enormous proportions. Part of the reason I changed careers was because I was so frustrated by working in such a crooked environment. Bad mechanics that lacked morals made the most money and honest ones lagged behind significantly. One key problem with the auto repair industry is the flat rate pay system which nearly all repair shops use. Basically it works like this: Labor time manuals are printed by the manufacturer for warranty repair time standards. These are times for a given job that are preset and are rounded to the nearest 1/10 of an hour. For instance, the replacement of an ignition module on a particular car may pay 1.1 hours in the warranty manual. That means that no matter how long it takes the mechanic to change that module, he still gets paid 1.1 hours. Aftermarket flat rate manuals are used for after warranty repairs. These manuals usually just take the warranty manual and multiply the time by 1.5. In some cases special times will be used instead. A mechanics flat rate time charge is usually referred to as a flag. For instance, the mechanic changing the module above will flag 1.1 hours for it under warranty or 1.7 hours retail.

Most mechanics are paid 100% commission based on what they flag. This is not always true but it is the overwhelming majority that are paid this way. For these mechanics, the motivation is to flag as many hours per day as possible. It is not impossible, or even that uncommon, for a mechanic to flag over 16 hours in an 8 hour day. The mechanic will make a given wage per flat rate hour. If he flags no time in a given day, he makes no money at all. Few shops guarantee a minimum income. There is no real maximum either. It is not unheard of for a fast, crooked mechanic to flag well over 80 hours in 5 day a week while working only a little over 8 hours per day. Thats not to say all mechanics that flag big hours are crooks though. The work load can be seasonal too. It was quite common to have a 50% or more pay fluctuation (flagged hours) from winter to summer.

The shop effectively makes a portion of what the mechanic flags so they too are interested in having the mechanic flag as many hours per day as possible. There is little motivation to be honest and quite a bit of motivation to rip off the customers. Most shops will not pay a mechanic to do a job twice. If a mechanic changed a water pump for instance, and the car came back with a leaking water pump gasket, the mechanic would have to replace the gasket and charge no time. The problem is that it is in the best interest of the shop and mechanic to blame the leak on something else that they can charge the customer for. Electrical and electronic parts typically have about a 30% to 60% no fault found rate on warranty returns. That means that about 30% to 40% were misdiagnosed in the field or the failure was not found during lab analysis.

Dealers/managers love those high speed guys because they make the company a ton of money. They figure what's a few blown out customers compared to a good profit. They're not going away, in fact, they are becoming all too common because that's what it's coming down too. Tech's haven't got a cost of living increase in years. When you ask a manager for a raise he says, "You want a raise, make more hours!" A few managers base their mechanics pay on hours produced. Techs working over 80 hours a week got a $2 per hour raise over a 40 hour tech. It is the exception to find a company giving a raise to the tech with the highest customer satisfaction.
There is not really a flat rate time for diagnosis in most cases. This means that a good mechanic that can troubleshoot a problem in 0.5 hours may charge significantly less than a clueless mechanic that spends 2 days swapping parts to figure it out. In the first case, an honest mechanic will flag 0.5 hours. Some may claim that since they are so smart, they will flag 0.8. In the second case, the same repair will cost the customer 2 full days plus any additional parts that were swapped as a guess. Again, there is very little incentive for the shop owner to intervene unless the customer complains.

Many mechanics will guess and swap parts until the problems are solved or the customer runs out of money. Only about one quarter of the mechanics out there can really troubleshoot problems accurately. Of those, only a portion can troubleshoot intermittent and more difficult problems. Most electrical and driveability problems on today's automobiles are intermittent. If you find a good mechanic you can trust, stick with him and tell all your friends.

On the other side of things, mechanics are often blamed for problems they did not cause. It seems all too often that a customer would claim the oil change we did caused their headlamps to flicker intermittently or some other bizarre problem that is in no way connected. Customers also seem to think that today's cars are smart and that there is some mystery machine hidden in the the shop that, when plugged into the car, will tell the mechanic everything that is wrong from low tire pressure to internal engine problems. This is far from accurate. Yes, modern cars do have sophisticated electronics on them and they do give the mechanic information such are fault codes and data values but they don't troubleshoot and they never will. On board software does have the capability of determining an out of range sensor or improper outputs. It can give the mechanic valuable information to help him narrow a problem down. It will never troubleshoot for him! An engine control for instance, which is generally the most sophisticated control on the vehicle, can only read values at the pins that connect it to the wiring harnesses. It can determine if a circuit is open or shorted or out of normal range but that is about it. It is up to the the well trained, smart mechanic to determine where the actual fault is. As I said earlier, most electrical and driveability problems are intermittent. That means that no matter what tests you run, chances are they will all pass. This is where data loggers and real smarts come into play.

It seems for the most part that bigger cities have more crooked shops than smaller ones. I think this is because a poor reputation in a small town will put you out of business whereas in a big city there are plenty of customers to go around. The strategy is usually to get all they can out of you when you do come if assuming you won't be back anyway. Also watch out for "mechanic of the month" award winners. These guys are usually the ones who flag the most hours to get a bonus on top of it. They are generally the most crooked as well.

Examples
I will now give a few real world examples of some of the things that go on in a shop. A new car dealer had a scam going that involved all the service personnel. They would bring new cars right in off the convoy truck and claim every one had alignment problems, driveability problems, and transmissions problems. Each of 3 mechanics would flag the maximum allowable time for work they supposedly did although no work was really performed on most of the vehicles. While these were all warranty claims, it is still fraud and the manufacturer was getting ripped off for more than a year. Some of these mechanics were being paid a 6 figure income by all the phony time they flagged. The dealership was finally caught and closed down but those same mechanics got jobs at other dealers. How would you like one of them working on your car?

A little old lady brought her car into a shop. A mechanic sold her over $2000 worth of parts and labor and the car was still not fixed. After all of that, it turned out there was a bad spark plug wire causing an intermittent misfire. The customer was still charged the full amount and none of the unnecessary parts were removed.

One mechanic was charging for piston ring replacements on certain vehicles under warranty on a routine basis. Few of the engines were ever taken apart. He would work at a dealer for a year or so until others would start to suspect and then go to another dealer to do it again. He rarely worked a full day but typically got paid over 12 hours per day.

During the 1980's, before detergent gasoline and deposit resistant injectors, the injectors would periodically need professional cleaning. The process typically pays about 1 hour but really only takes about 15 minutes of a mechanics time since he can connect the machine, start the process, and do other work while the injectors are being cleaned. Starting in the late 1980's, deposit resistant injectors were introduced and detergents were added to gasoline to prevent clogged injectors. Some mechanics will still try to sell you an injector clean as maintenance. There are cases where injectors may need to be cleaned to correct poor running but it is really not a maintenence item anymore. Another similar situation arises with the throttle body. Throttle bodies will sludge up, especially if you use natural (non-synthetic) oils. It was common in the 1980's to periodically clean the throttle body. In the early 1990's, new measures were taken to eliminate the need to clean the throttle body. In fact, some throttle bodies come pre-sludged with a special coating to allow proper idle speed. If you remove the coating, your idle may be too high. Some mechanics still sell throttle body cleaning as a maintenance item. It generally takes about 5 minutes and they will charge you an hour. In some cases it will actually cause an idle problem where one was not previously present.

Warning signs?
There are a few warning signs you can watch out for:

Does your mechanic claim you need more than one part to repair a given concern? If so it is questionable. While it is possible to have multiple failures contribute to a symptom, it is more likely a single part or condition is at fault. Occasionally you could have one component failure cause another component failure but that is also less likely. Always ask for a detailed explanation of what the root cause of the failure was. Beware of the parts swapper who wants to change every part that he thinks may be causing the problem. A typical example would be an EGR system. Many mechanics will claim that the EGR valve and sensor should both be changed if either is faulty. This is generally not true. There were cases in the 1980's when redesigned valves would not work without a redesigned sensor but generally either one or the other is the problem, not both. Sometimes the mechanic will recommend several parts but only 1 may be associated with your original concern. That is OK as long as he explains what all the parts are needed for. Often times he is trying to sell you maintenance work or has found worn parts that do need replacement. There should be a reason for every parts that is replaced.
Do they claim that you need "maintenance" work that does not show up in the factory maintenance guides? Like I mentioned above in the examples section, there are many maintenance procedures that are no longer needed but are still sold as required. The injector cleaning and throttle body cleaning are 2 examples. Most late model vehicles require very little maintenance compared to those of 10 years ago. Today's cars will never need a tune up. Most cars will need spark plugs replaced at 100k miles but no adjustments are ever needed. The timing and idle adjustments and other things that were part of a tune up are history. None of that is adjustable anymore. All you need is spark plugs, drive belts, brakes, oil, and filters for maintenance on most cars. Most wheel bearings are not serviceable anymore either. Always check your factory maintenance guides to see what is really required (that is if you can find a good one).
Are they trying to sell you brakes? In many cases poor driving habits will lead to premature brake wear. I have seen poor drivers destroy brake pads in less than 25k miles. However, upselling brakes is one of the most common scams some mechanics will try. Typically, you should be able to run your brakes down to about 15% remaining before you need to consider replacement. It is too common for some mechanics to try to sell brakes at 50%.
Are they spending too much troubleshooting time? This is really difficult to determine if you are getting a fair deal or not. I found that people would generally rather pay to swap out parts than to properly troubleshoot a problem. Generally, any hard failure, one that is always occurring and not intermittent, should take less than a couple hours to troubleshoot but even that is a rough estimate. Intermittent problems are the hard, and more common, ones. If the problem is only an inconvenience, such as a hesitation, lack of power, or intermittent problem with a non-essential electrical system, it is best to let it get bad enough that it can be easily duplicated before bringing it in to a mechanic. Things such as the yellow "check engine" or "service engine soon" light are best to wait until they are on constant as long as no other symptoms exist. It is not a bad idea to have a quick checkout of 1 hour or so to see if it is something simple but spending much more than that on a real intermittent problem can be futile. If it is a significant problem, like dying, then you had better get it fixed. This means determining the actual root cause of the problem, not just swapping parts until it seems better. In some cases if there is a significant problem that happens so rarely it can't be verified by the mechanic, educated guesses may be your best option. However, that decision should be made by you and your mechanic should have already checked TSB's and recalls to make sure it is not a known problem with a fix, and done a thorough inspection and basic testing to see if the root cause could be determined.
Are they selling you a tune-up? Vehicles built in the last 10 years or so do not need tune-ups. They do need spark plugs and filters but that is it. There are no adjustments or other maintenance required. You don't need to scan for codes either. Even on vehicles with adjustable timing, it no longer needs any adjustment unless you are having a problem. It will not vary a significant amount in the first 100k miles. If your vehicle is due for spark plugs, get them replaced. You need to change air and fuel filters too but that is about it. Again, consult your factory maintenance guides.What Can You Do?

Whenever possible, use a specialist. Today's cars are too complex for one person to be expert on everything. Generally the categories are: driveability, electrical (although driveability and electrical are about the same thing today), transmission, alignment, heavy line, light line, and maintenance. A good mechanic may have a couple categories he is strong in. It is important that a mechanic is well rounded and have knowledge of the complete vehicle. He could probably perform tasks other than his specialty but his specialty area should be by far his strong point and it should also be what he concentrates on. Compare it to a doctor. You do not want a skin cancer specialist doing heart bypasses. The same is true in the automotive field. Dealerships have the best tools and training and usually have enough mechanics to have specialists. Many times however, independent shops will be more honest.
Avoid the "mechanic of the month" award winners. These guys usually get there by flagging the most hours. That is a warning sign that he likely has the least morals and will try to get all he can out of you. That is not always the case but it is a warning sign to me. This can be a tough call. There are times when this guy is just fast and good.
Explain your problem in as much detail as possible. Don't just say "it runs bad". Explain exactly when it does it, how often it does it, when it started, how you are driving it when it happens, etc. Don't try to diagnose it! I used to have customers say things like "I think it's the carburetor" all the time. That does no good. I got the worst problem descriptions from men who wanted to appear knowledgeable rather than just describe the problem in plain language. Women were usually better about just describing the symptoms. If the problem is intermittent to any degree, say so. The absolute best thing to do is to take the mechanic for a ride in the car and show him exactly your concern. Make sure you are driving so you can show him exactly what your problem is, then let him try to duplicate it.
Use word-of-mouth to find an honest mechanic. Beware however that some people don't know a rip-off even after it has happened repeatedly to them. If they recommend someone, ask for details. Was more than one part required for the repair? If so, why? What other work was sold to them at the same time? Once you find an honest mechanic, stick with him. Get his name and request him every time. Tell all your friends. There are still many good, smart, honest mechanics out there and they deserve all the good business they can handle. This too may be difficult to determine word of mouth since some people think they are getting ripped off when they are not at all.
If you get ripped off, tell everyone you know, fight it with the shop owner, and make as much of a stink about it as you can. Don't let them get away with it. Report it to the Better Business Bureau. It is time to send a strong message to crooked mechanics and shops. Shut them down.Lacking knowledge of modern automobiles can really open you up to rip off artists. ASE certification does not mean you have competent techs, although it is a step in the right direction. I passed the heavy duty truck brake tests and I had no idea how the systems even worked and had never worked on one. I also passed the transmission tests with little knowledge or experience on transmissions. The tests are generally too easy and they give no indication of how honest the mechanic is. While ASE may attempt to better the repair industry, and they do help, they can't fix the root cause of the problems. I would, however, recommend ASE certified mechanics over those that are not. I want to make it clear however that there are some very sharp and honest mechanics out there who are underpaid for their ability. Sadly, it is the parts swappers and mechanics that do maintenance that really bring home the most money despite lower pay per flat rate hour in many cases than specialists. Training usually pays actual time at best. Some dealers don't even pay for training. The affect is that mechanics have less motivation to attend classes.

Most vehicle manufacturers now require at least some degree of training which is helping to drive the right behavior. Modern mechanics working on high-tech systems require a significantly higher skill set than mechanics of yesterday. Vehicles have become very complex. Most of the problems on these high-tech systems are intermittent making it even harder. Some manufacturers don't seem to understand what it takes to troubleshoot problems on these modern systems and believe that the mechanics out there simply don't have the aptitude to learn what they need to so they don't give the detail of information required to really understand these systems. This adds to the challenges a good mechanic faces. Modern vehicle troubleshooting requires many of the techniques a doctor would use to troubleshoot problems with humans. The real frustration comes when these vehicle doctors take home less money than a mechanic that just swaps parts. I would guess that only about 10% of the mechanics out there fit into the vehicle doctor category. Another 20% have some skills for troubleshooting. Many of the rest just swap parts and their skill is the speed at which they can change these parts. Often it is the doctors who really end up troubleshooting most of the problems for the others but he does not make the money for it. That should be improving as vehicles become more complex.

Modern vehicles are significantly more reliable than older ones. The newer the better. Modern vehicles require very little maintenance and very few repairs compared to those just 10 years earlier. Generally, any of the larger automakers make a better quality product today than the best cars of 10 years ago.

I blame most of the problems with the repair industry on the flat rate pay system. It can drive the wrong behavior throughout the organization. It gives clear incentive to go for speed and not accuracy. How would you like your pay cut in half because business was slow. Go home and tell your family that and see how it makes you feel. Upsell becomes easier to justify. It can be a very stressful living. Now work in those conditions and watch the guy next to you cheat the system and rake in the money with bonuses and praise from management to boot. Mechanics are no more dishonest than anyone else by nature, flat rate pay is to blame. "

Brian R.
07-05-2006, 09:11 PM
ENGINE VACUUM HOSE ROUTING DIAGRAM

Q: I'm having trouble isolating a vacuum problem. I've checked the egr - good, replaced ALL vacuum lines, but car still misses at 20-25mph and 45-50mph. with egr vacuum line d/c'd the miss is gone. while trying to make sense of manual, i came across pic of egr and vacuum lines as they are connected in the pic - they don't match my cars egr vacuum lines although the pic is supposed to represent same. if anyone can direct me to an appropriate manual, or even better, if someone can send me a diagram it would be much apprieciated.

A: Give your VIN to a Toyota parts department and they should be able to order a vacuum routing diagram for you to stick under your car hood (if there isn't one already there). This is the best diagram to follow for your car. They have to have these available for cars who have to have their hoods replaced.

Brian R.
07-08-2006, 08:42 PM
FLUID SPECIFICATIONS

http://oregonstate.edu/~tongt/camry/Fluid_Specs.pdf

Brian R.
07-08-2006, 09:02 PM
WHAT GEAR RATIO SHOULD I USE WITH OVERSIZE TIRES?

Q: i got a '95.5 toyota tacoma. It's a 2.7L 4X4 Auto and I'm not sure what kind of gears it has in it. I put a 6-in lift with 33-in tires and i need a little more power and the trans needs some help. What size gears i should put in it and what brand is a good one?

A: Here is a chart for the axle codes and a link to a gear chart. There should be a tag in the drivers side door jam. Find your gears and match them up for an exact match. I would recommend a 4.56 or a 4.88 if you wheel it.

http://www.tacomaterritory.com/wiki/index.php/Gear_Codes

http://www.tacomaterritory.com/wiki/index.php/Gear_Chart

Here is another link with information about how to identify your vehicles gear ratio. Within this article are additional links about gearing.

http://www.brian894x4.com/Gearratiosanddiffs.html

I would recommend Yukon gears. Be prepared regear is not cheap. You will need to buy master install kits for both diffs.

Thanks to TcmaBoy and Flash75 for the above information.

Brian R.
07-08-2006, 09:19 PM
PROCEDURE FOR REPLACING WATER PUMP IN 3.4L V6

http://www.tacomaterritory.com/wiki/index.php/Water_Pump_Replacement

Brian R.
07-13-2006, 10:18 PM
Tacoma/4Runner Differential References
Thanks to Flash75 for the following information:

This links covers differential information for most Toyota truck applications. If covers ratios and how to determine your ratio, the various types of differentials and their applications. Also covered are axle widths and Toyota electric locking differentials.

http://home.4x4wire.com/erik/diffs/ (http://home.4x4wire.com/erik/diffs/)

Here are instructions for changing and setting up Toyota gears. The information should apply to all Toyota trucks. Great information for those who wish to change their gears.

http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/tech/gear_setup/ (http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/tech/gear_setup/)

Tire Size and Gear Ratio Chart
It lists the best combination for near stock, fuel economy and performance.

http://toyota.off-road.com/toyota/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=186404 (http://toyota.off-road.com/toyota/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=186404)

Brian R.
07-13-2006, 10:19 PM
Good Exhaust System Information

http://www.nsxprime.com/FAQ/Miscellaneous/exhausttheory.htm (http://www.nsxprime.com/FAQ/Miscellaneous/exhausttheory.htm)

Thanks to Flash75

Brian R.
07-13-2006, 10:20 PM
Bleeding Brakes

How to bleed brakes. Link covers Toyota pickups and 4Runners.

http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/maintenance/bleedingbrakes/ (http://www.4x4wire.com/toyota/maintenance/bleedingbrakes/)

Thanks to Flash75

Brian R.
07-14-2006, 11:55 PM
WINDSHIELD SCRATCHES

Q: My windshield has 2 wiper marks from crappy wiper blades. how can i get rid of them? Is there some kind of cleaner that wil bring them off?

A: If you can feel them with your finger nails they will not come out by cleaning, If not too deep you may be able to get the out with some very fine rubbing compound, some people use tooth paste. Do a Google search and see what come up. Be advised, it will require lots of time and effort and still may not work.

Q: Thanks for the reply. The marks are very light. I have some stuff called Plastix from Meguiers. It does an excellent job on plastic getting scratches and oxidation out. Do you think that will work?

A: It shouldn't hurt anything to try the Plastix. If that doesn't help here is an article that describes how to polish out scratches in windshields.

http://www.valvoline.com/carcare/articleviewer.asp?pg=ccr20030101wp&print=1

Brian R.
07-14-2006, 11:57 PM
HOW TO MAKE MY TRUCK LAST AS LONG AS POSSIBLE

Q: My 4Runner has 189,998 miles on it and it is running like a charm; all the things that I believe need to be replaced have been. I'm not going to be able to invest in another car for a while since I'm in college. Therefore, I'm going to need this car to last close to forever until I get a good job with some formidable income. I was wondering if there are any tips you could suggest for me to keep this thing running like the energizer bunny..?

A: Add an auxiliary transmission cooler. Pick a core up at a junkyard for $5-15usd, two 5/16" brass T fittings, 8 small hose clamps, zip ties, 5/16" oil hose.

Flush the transmission fluid every other year, or drain the pan every other oil change.

Change the oil every 5,000 miles - 6 months for dino oil, 7500-10,000 miles - 10 months for good synthetics. If your engine is one that is prone to sludge, shorten the above intervals appropriately (see first post in this thread).

Clean oil pan & screen, transmission pan & screen & change transmission filter every 5 years.

Rotate tires every oil change, twice if you're using a long life synthetic.

Clean the inside of the upper portion of the intake manifold, throttle plate, ISC/IAC valve(idle valve), and EGR valve yearly.

Change differential fluid every four years.

Flush the brake system with fresh DOT3, DOT4, or DOT4+/DOT5.1 every three years.

Change the fluid in the power steering reservoir every year, or flush the power steering system every other year.

Flush the cooling system every other year, or drain yearly.

Change radiator cap<s> & thermostat every 5 years.

Change PCV valve every 5 years.

Change O2 sensor<s> before 100,000 miles accumulates.

Change cat convertor before 100,000 miles accumulates.

Change distributor cap & rotor every other spark plug change (120,000 miles).

Check belts yearly, change belts when needed, change all belts (including timing belt) every 90,000 miles. Replace the water pump every other timing belt change.

Otherwise, just keep track of things. Like CV boots, things you need to grease, seals that can leak etc.

Use only NGK, or Denso spark plugs. Might as well be the generic $1 versions, as they last over the specified change time.

If spark plug wires ever become damaged, only replace with OEM wires, or high quality wires.

Lightly spray your CV boots with silicone lubricant when you're under the car for each oil change. Get as much of the surface shiny as you can. They will last a long time.

Pay attention to the body lube points and check the torque the chassis bolts as recommended by Toyota.

Make sure you use a high quality air filter. Some are very coarse and let in alot of abrasive dust. They do this in the name of high-performance, but other real hp filters are much better. Oil-wetted elements are the best (AMSOIL, TRD, etc). They actually trap the dust in the oil and prevent it from bouncing off the filter element.

Wash off the bottom of the verhicle, wheel wells, bottom of engine compartment, etc a couple of times after salt exposure in the winter. As long as it's really cold, the salt is not too harmful. Once it has warmed above freezing, wash it off as soon as you can, at least once.

Wax your paint at least once a year before winter. More often is better. Use a good quality wax (I like Meguires, but there are alot of good ones).

Get the carbon out of your combustion chambers periodically - maybe every 100k or so. SeaFoam is quite good for this. Adding some to the gas (or Techron) once in a while is a good idea to minimize deposits on the injectors.

Watch all your fluid levels often. Even if they never change, if one of them suddenly start dropping, it is much better to catch it now than when something starts making noise.

To state the obvious: Drive your car like you want it to last. Everything else being equal, the harder you drive it, the less miles it will have in it.

(Thanks to Toysrme for alot of the above recommendations)

See also hints in http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=449003

Brian R.
08-09-2006, 09:15 AM
HOW TO ADMINISTER SEAFOAM TO CLEAN YOUR ENGINE
(Thanks to Toysrme for the following discussion)

Seafoam (http://www.seafoamsales.com/motorTuneUp.htm) makes the world go round!
Not really, but at $5 a can it's a steal.
A can is 1 pint. http://www.seafoamsales.com/images/updates_whitecap.gif
You need 2 cans.

Pour 1/2 a can in the gas tank when you stop to fill up. (This ensures it mixes well)

Pour the other 1/2 in with fresh engine oil.
At the least you will notice that the engine will idle noticeably smoother.


Here's where most people get confused. Using it down the intake to clean the combustion chamber & parts of the head.


1) Drive the car around the block until it comes up to temp
2) Pour 1/3 of a can into a separate container (1/4 of a can for 4 cylinders)
3) Crank the engine
4) Pull the brake booster hose off & put your finger over the end so the car doesn't lean out & stall.

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v414/Toysrme/Answers/Seafoam-1.jpg

5) Drop the hose in the bottom of the container & let your finger off the end. If the engine doesn't stall out completely SHUT IT OFF ASAP.
The fluid will near instantly disappear & the engine should stall from being too rich to run, or being too lean from the hose letting air in afterwards. This will not break your engine. You're not using enough fluid to hydrolock it.
6) The engine should sit for 5 min.
7) Crank the engine & let it run until the smoke dies down
Normally you will get an ungodly amount of smoke.
8) As the smoke dies down, drive the car around. Be sure to make liberal use of 1st & 2nd gear to get to the higher portions of the RPM range a few times. That would be 5000-6850rpm..
You are not breaking your engine by running it at those rpm... All of the computers on all of the engines will cut the fuel to slow the RPM down before the engine is damaged. Yes, they are built for it...






Why someone would want to do this?
To clean gunk, sludge, & misc. heavy buildup out of the oil system. Pump, passages, bearings, walls.
To clean the fuel system.
To clean carbon out of the combustion chamber.

Now some people ask why you want to go to the trouble of cleaning carbon out of the engine.

Because as it builds up on the valves, they don't seal as well - causing poor compression while the leaking gas superheats parts of the engine that are not designed for it.

Because carbon in the combustion chamber is bad. mmmm kay? Any carbon becomes superheated. Superheated carbon / metal will cause the incoming fuel & air to ignite earlier than it should be. This (Detonation, pinging, kocking - all just names for pre-ignition) is very derailment to many aspects of engine life.

This is what a 3vz-fe looks like @ 95,000 miles.
(Forget the fluids, fluids spill look at the black carbon build-up)

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v414/Toysrme/Pistons.jpg


Here's what it looks like 6 months after the last 3 Seafoam treatments.

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v208/DNoel/Car%20Pictures/Piston6.jpg





Seafoam = Good. It's cheap & versatile, while working at least as good as anything else; regardless of the cost.

Brian R. note: GM Top Engine Cleaner is another useful additive for the above purpose.

Brian R.
08-12-2006, 05:08 PM
BUYING A CAR/TRUCK - WHAT TO LOOK FOR

Q: I'm about to purchase a mint vehicle, is there anything I should know about it before I purchase it. it only has 60k original miles. and great body.

A: Timing belt may be due to be changed at 60K (or 90K), an added expense.

Check the CV boots and see if they are torn - or grease has been thrown over the underbody in the area of the CV joints. Expensive repair.

Check the color of the ATF. If it's really dirty, it may have never been changed and you may have a potential problem there. If it's mud, don't buy it. If it's just reddish brown, get it flushed as soon as you can. Make sure it shifts smoothly, quietly, and without a jerk. May indicate a problem.

You should actually flush (not just drain & refill) all fluids ASAP after buying the car. Oil change, Transmission, Coolant, Brake lines, Powersteering fluid. Keep this expense in mind.

Pull the oil filler cap and see if there is bright shiny metal visible or are there extensive black deposits, indicating a lack of maintenance. If there is alot of black crap visible, don't buy it. Check for oil leaks under the engine and transmission.

Have the brakes checked and see if they need to be changed. That will be an added expense after you buy it. Tires are costlly also.

Make sure there is no smoke or steam coming out of the exhaust, either when just starting it or after it is hot. May be a sign of having been overheated or other serious problem. Don't buy it.

Check the coolant to make sure it is pretty red or green. No foam, bubbles in the overflow tank when the engine is running, or discoloration. If there are foam or bubbles - don't buy it.

Engine should run smoothly and quietly, no jerking, hesitating, or "Check Engine" light showing. Check recent emissions results if available.

Car should have no vibration at any speed. If there is any vibration, see if there is a bump in one of the tires. Anything else - don't buy it. If one of the tires has a bump, get it replaced as soon as possible. Take the cost of 4 tires into account if they are pretty used. You don't want one new tire on a set of badly used ones. On the test drive the vehicle should steer straight with no excessive side pull and the steering wheel should not be off center when driving on a straight road. Make allowances for an alignment and maybe front-end work if you find these indicators. Could be expensive.

Bounce the car hard, front and back separately. If it doesn't stop bouncing immediately, you may need to buy a set of struts. This can be expensive. As a general rule, there should be nothing wrong with the struts at 60K. If the car is a relatively new model, it may indicate that the car has been abused (or the speedometer has been rolled back). If the car is really old, the struts may be shot due to age alone. Mileage is not the only indicator of the expected strut condition. An old car doesn't have to have been abused to have bad struts at low mileage.

Along these lines: regardless of whether or not it has been driven hard, or sitting still, any car, regardless of make, can be expected to get around 10 years on the factory struts, springs, and rubber type mounts (i.e. strut mounts, bushings, engine mounts, etc.). And that it is fairly downhill quickly from there.

Check under the car for shiny welds or a lot of new parts that may indicate the car has been extensively fixed because of a collision. Also check the dashboard and see if it has a VIN in front of the driver, no VIN number indicates it has been replaced - check the VIN against the title. Don't buy it if anything is wrong.

Check the body panel fasteners. Example - Fender, Hood, Door, Trunk bolts, etc. Signs of chipped paint, disturbed mating surfaces, and tool usage may indicate that the vehicle has had body damage and been repaired. Run your fingers along the seams between the body panels. Wavyness or uneven spacing in the body panels indicates the presence of collision damage. Likewise, check the shock towers for welds, indicating repairs.

Check all the lights, turn signals, cruise control (may be designed to work only above a certain speed), and other electrical components for proper operation. Also check that the air conditioning blows cold air and the heater works.

If you don't know the car's history, check CARFAX.com for history. Only buy it if it has a squeeky clean history.


There are other cars available that don't have potential serious problems. Don't take chances if there are unknown costs after the purchase. Don't buy it if there is any doubt about it's condition. Have a mechanic look at it - it is worth the money.

Brian R.
08-24-2006, 02:12 AM
WHEEL BOLT PATTERN, LUG NUT THREAD SIZE, AND OFFSET

Q: I need some rims for the winter time and I came accross these. They came off a 06' Ford F150. They are 17's and the size he gave me was 6x135. Will they fit my '97 Tacoma 4WD?

A: No, the F-150 wheels won't fit. Not only do the bolt patterns have a different diameter, but the offset is wrong.

F-150 6-135 and +44 offset
Tacoma (1995-2004 4WD) 6-139.7 and +22 offset
Tacoma (1995-2004 2WD) 5-114.3 and +50 offset

Here is a link for any vehicle bolt pattern, thread size, and offset:
http://www.racingdimension.com/RD_Wheel_Lugnut_Chart.htm

Brian R.
08-27-2006, 03:23 PM
'05-'06 TACOMA RADIO REMOVAL

Q: I just traded my beloved '99 Taco in for a new 2006 double cab TRD. Awesome truck! Anyway, I need to get behind my radio to plug into the CD changer port on the stock radio so I can attach my cable to hook in my iPOD. I reviewed the forums but did not see this anywhere. Can someone lead me to how to do remove the radio before I attack my brand new truck with a screw driver? The radio is the standard in dash 6-disc changer...the near-eye level mount. Thanks for any help!

A: The following link is to an article for an i-pod hook up. It shows you how to remove the factory radio. Basically you will have to pull the center of the dash apart because the radio is integrated into it.

http://homepage.mac.com/ebones/PhotoAlbum13.html

Thanks TcmaBoy

Brian R.
09-13-2006, 02:36 PM
TRANSMISSION FLUIDS

Q: My '97 Tacoma is a little low in tranny fluid. I checked the book and it states using Dextron ll Automatic Tansmission Fluid. I have been to two different stores in the area and no one seems to have it. Is there another name that it goes by? What gives???? I even called the Toyota Dealer and he said that Dextron ll is the correct fluid for my Tacoma. What's going on? I feel as though I'm in a twilight zone!!!! I even checked Advance Auto online and there isn't a listing for it there either. Any help would be appreciated!


A: You can use Dexron III anytime Dexron II was recommended.

From Chevron.com:
Maintaining Your Transmission

These days there's no such thing as "normal" driving conditions. Heavy stop-and-go traffic, frequent short trips, trailer towing; they all put your engine to the supreme test and can take a toll on your transmission. Under these tough conditions, you can help your transmission run better and longer when you follow the vehicle manufacturer's severe service schedule and change the automatic transmission fluid at the recommended intervals (typically every 15,000 to 30,000 miles). Also, if you suspect that your ATF has oxidized or deteriorated between service intervals, you may want to consult with your local automotive service center.

Selecting the proper quality of ATF is not as easy as it once was. In the past, ATF came in two types: DEXRON®, MERCON® or ATF Type F. However, as transmissions have become more advanced, automobile manufacturers have introduced fluids specifically designed for their transmissions. Always check your owner's manual for the required type of ATF.
Here are the most commonly specified ATFs:

DEXRON® -III
This is a specification for General Motors vehicles, but many foreign manufactures specify a DEXRON approved ATF as well. DEXRON-III can be used in transmissions that call for DEXRON-IIE or DEXRON-II.

MERCON®
Most Ford vehicles manufactured between 1980 and 1999 specify a MERCON ATF. ATFs that meet DEXRON-III requirements usually meet the MERCON requirements as well.


MERCON® V
Beginning with the 1997 model year, Ford introduced a higher performance level ATF with the MERCON V specification. Many Ford automatic transmissions from 1999 on will require a MERCON V fluid. The most notable exceptions are the E40D, 4R100, and CD4E transmissions, which still specify regular MERCON ATF.

Type F
Type F is specifically designed for all pre-1977 Ford vehicles and some makes between 1977 and 1981. Effective March 1997, Ford discontinued administration of approvals for Type F fluids. However, there are still many vehicles on the road that use Type F. Type F and MERCON fluids are not interchangeable.



ATF+3® /ATF+4®
DaimlerChrysler has had their own ATF specifications for many years, but as of 1997, Chrysler owners' manuals no longer list DEXRON as an acceptable replacement. ATF+3 is a readily available mineral oil-based ATF that is suitable in any application calling for ATF PLUS® , ATF+2® , or a Type 7176® fluid. Vehicles manufactured after 1999 require ATF+4® , a synthetic-based ATF only available through DaimlerChrysler.

Brian R.
09-17-2006, 03:57 AM
ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS TO R12 AND R134A

Here is an interesting article on alternative refrigerants:

A/C: New Alternative Refrigerants

by Larry Carley

If you have bought any R-12 refrigerant lately, you know it is pretty pricey stuff. Last year, the price peaked at about $20 a pound ($600 for a 30 lb. tank) in some areas of the country. This year some predict the price could shoot as high as $30 to $33 per lb. ($1000 per tank!) if we get a long hot summer. Consequently, people are searching for less expensive alternatives to recharge their A/C systems.

NO DROP-INS
Though some alternative refrigerants are being marketed as "drop-in" replacements for R-12, there is really no such thing. According to the EPA, the concept of a "drop-in" replacement for R-12 is a marketing myth. Such words imply a substitute refrigerant will perform the same as R-12 under all conditions, that it will require no modifications to the A/C system or changes in lubricant, and that it is compatible with R-12 and can be added to a system that still contains R-12. Federal law prohibits the topping off A/C systems with refrigerants that are different from what is in the system—unless all of the old refrigerant is first removed so the system can be converted to a new refrigerant.

The truth is no substitute refrigerant meets all of these requirements. There are, however, a number of alternative refrigerants that have been reviewed by the EPA and have been found to meet the EPA’s SNAP (Significant New Alternatives Policy) criteria for environmental acceptability and usage. The SNAP rules prohibit flammable refrigerants or ones that contain ozone-damaging CFCs.

But just because a refrigerant meets the EPA's usage criteria does not mean it is endorsed or "approved" by the EPA, or that it will perform well as a refrigerant.

THE ALTERNATIVES
There are currently seven alternative refrigerants from which to choose. One is R-134a, which is the only alternative currently approved by all vehicle manufacturers worldwide for new vehicles as well as for converting older R-12 applications. The OEMS say R-134a can perform well in most R-12 systems provided the proper retrofit procedures are followed. The also recommend R-134a because it is a single component refrigerant, unlike most of the alternatives which are blends of two to four ingredients.

The OEMS do not like blends because blends can undergo "fractionation." This is when the individual ingredients in a blend separate for various reasons. Fractionation can be caused by chemical differences between the refrigerants (lighter and heavier elements don’t want to stay mixed), different rates of leakage through seals and hoses (smaller molecules leak at a higher rate than larger ones), and different rates of absorption by the compressor oil and desiccant. Fractionation is a concern because it can change the overall composition of the blend once it is in use, which can affect the performance characteristics of the refrigerant. Fractionation also makes it difficult to recycle a blended refrigerant because what comes out of the system may not be the same mix that went into the system.

The OEMS also say limiting the alternatives to one (R-134a) simplifies things, reduces the risk of cross-contamination and eliminates the need for multiple recovery machines (EPA rules require a separate dedicated recovery only or recovery/recycling machine for each type of refrigerant serviced).

BLENDS
Alternative refrigerants that have been found acceptable for automotive applications or are currently being reviewed by the EPA include the following blends:

Free Zone (RB-276). Supplied by Refrigerant Gases, this blend contains 79% R-134a, 19% HCFC-142b and 2% lubricant.
Freeze 12. Supplied by Technical Chemical, this blend contains 80% R-134a and 20% HCFC-142b.
FRIGC (FR-12). Made by Intermagnetics General and marketed by Pennzoil, this blend contains 59% R-134a, 39% HCFC-124 and 2% butane.
GHG-X4 (Autofrost & McCool Chill-It). This blend is supplied by Peoples Welding Supply and contains 51% R-22, 28.5% HCFC-124, 16.5% HCFC-142b and 4% isobutane (R-600a).
GHG-HP. Also supplied by Peoples Welding Supply, this blend contains 65% R-22, 31% HCFC-142b and 4% isobutane (R-600a).
Hot Shot\Kar Kool. Supplied by ICOR, this blend contains 50% R-22, 39% HCFC-124, 9.5% HCFC-142b and 1.5% isobutane (R-600a).The suppliers of the alternative blends say their products typically cool better than straight R-134a in systems designed for R-12, and do not require changing the compressor oil or desiccant in some cases. Changing the desiccant to XH-7 is usually recommended if an R-12 system is converted to R-134a. The desiccant should also be replaced if a blend contains R-22 because R-22 is not compatible with XH-5 or XH-7 desiccant. The recommended desiccant in this case would be XH-9.

The suppliers of the alternative blends also insist the fractionation problem is exaggerated and do not foresee any major problems with recovering and recycling their products (recycling blends is currently illegal, but the EPA is reviewing its feasibility).

Are blends establishing a niche in the marketplace? One supplier of these products said they sold over a million pounds of their alternative refrigerant last year alone! Most are predicting increased sales as the price of R-12 continues to rise and stockpiles dwindle.

MACS FIELD STUDY
A field study of various refrigerants conducted by the Mobile Air Conditioning Society (MACS) compared the cooling performance of R-12, R-134a and three blended refrigerants (Freeze 12, FRIGC and McCool Chill-It). The study found that all the alternative refrigerants (including R-134a) did not cool as well as R-12 in the vehicles tested (a 1990 Pontiac Grand Am and a 1987 Honda Accord). But the study did find that the blends outperformed R-134a in the Honda (but not the Pontiac). The increase in A/C outlet temperature with the different refrigerants ranged from less than a degree to almost 11 degrees.

ILLEGAL REFRIGERANTS
Another class of alternative refrigerants has also appeared on the scene: illegal refrigerants. Some products that have been introduced (OZ-12, HC-12a, R-176 and R-405a) do not meet the EPA’s criteria for environmental acceptability or safety. Flammable refrigerants such as OZ-12 and HC-12a that contain large quantities of hydrocarbons (propane, butane, isobutane, etc.) have been declared illegal for use in mobile A/C applications, but are still turning up in vehicle systems anyway because of their cheap price.
Flammable refrigerants pose a significant danger to a vehicle’s occupants should a leak occur. A spark from a cigarette or a switch can ignite the leaking refrigerant causing an explosion and turning the vehicle’s interior into an inferno. It only takes about four ounces of a flammable hydrocarbon refrigerant such as propane or butane to create an explosive mixture inside a typical automobile passenger compartment.

Frontal collisions can also release the refrigerant if the condenser is damaged, which could result in a severe underhood fire causing extensive damage to the vehicle.

There’s also a risk to service technicians who might encounter leaks while servicing a vehicle or operating recovery/recycling equipment.

Merely topping off an A/C system with a flammable hydrocarbon can make the entire charge of refrigerant flammable if the amount added exceeds a certain percentage: 10% in the case of an R-12 system and only 5% with R-134a! That’s only three or four ounces of hydrocarbon depending on the overall capacity of the system.

Flammable refrigerants are used in some stationary applications as well as truck trailer refrigeration units because there’s less risk of leakage or fire. Also, the amount of refrigerant is typically much less, only five or six ounces total instead of several pounds.

BOOTLEGGERS & COUNTERFEITERS
Less dangerous but equally illegal is bootleg R-12 that’s being smuggled into the U.S. from offshore. Though most of the industrialized nations have stopped manufacturing R-12 (production ended here December 31, 1995), R-12 is still being made in some Third World countries including Mexico. Some of this product is finding its way past customs in mislabeled containers or concealed in various ways. The EPA warns that much of the refrigerant it has confiscated thus far is of poor quality, contaminated by air, moisture, R-22 and other substances. The EPA has worked with customs authorities and the FBI to make a number of arrests. Fines for violating the clean air rules can run up to $25,000 per instance.

Counterfeiting branded product is another scam that’s being perpetrated to turn a fast buck in today’s market. Cylinders of counterfeit Allied Signal Genetron R-12 have reportedly been turning up in various parts of the country. The cylinders do not contain R-12 but some "unknown" refrigerant. Allied Signal says the counterfeit boxes do not have cut-outs where lot numbers strapped on cylinders would appear and there are no bar codes or white painted stripes on the sides. The number "Q 1167" may also appear on the bottom of the packaging. The cylinders themselves may be marked with a pressure-sensitive decal whereas the genuine product has markings printed on the cylinder itself.

CONTAMINATED REFRIGERANT
The high price of R-12 has also lead to an increase in incidences of virgin R-12 being adulterated with other less expensive refrigerants. Most technicians assume a tank of virgin refrigerant is pure, but some are finding that’s not the case. Some supplies say they now test every single tank of refrigerant to make sure it contains the proper refrigerant and that the quality of the refrigerant meets specifications.

The primary threat of contamination, though, is that of accidentally cross-contaminating refrigerants when vehicles are professionally serviced. Because the law requires all refrigerants to be recovered, there’s a potential risk of contaminating when recovery and recycling equipment is connected to a vehicle. The problem is compounded, many say, by the proliferation of alternative and illegal refrigerants.

The dangers of cross-contamination are the effects it can have on cooling performance and component reliability. R-12 and R-134a are not compatible refrigerants because R-134a will not mix with and circulate mineral-based compressor oil (which may lead to compressor failure). Nor is R-134a compatible with the moisture-absorbing desiccant XH-5, which is used in many R-12 systems.

Intermixing refrigerants can also raise compressor head pressures dangerously. Adding R-22 (which is used in many stationary A/C systems but is not designed for use in mobile A/C applications) to an R-12 or R-134a system may raise head pressures to the point where it causes the compressor to fail. Straight R-22 can cause extremely high discharge pressure readings (up to 400 or 500 psi!) when underhood temperatures are high. R-22 is also not compatible with XH-5 and XH-7 desiccants used in most mobile A/C systems.

R-134a also requires its own special type of oil: either a polyakylene (PAG) oil or a polyol ester (POE) oil. The OEMS mostly specify a variety of different PAG oils because some compressors require a heavier or lighter viscosity oil for proper lubrication (though General Motors does specify only a single grade of PAG oil for most service applications). The aftermarket generally favors POE oil because POE is compatible with both R-12 and R-134a and unlike PAG oil it will mix with mineral oil. Mineral oil, as a rule, should still be used in older R-12 systems.

DECISIONS, DECISIONS
The use of alternative refrigerants such as blends will likely grow because they’re a cheap alternative to R-12. The OEMs don’t like it, but the EPA has said it will let the market decide the fate of alternative blends. Consequently, you need to be aware of what’s potentially out there and be prepared to handle (or not handle) blends.

To minimize the risk of cross-contamination, the EPA requires that each type of refrigerant (including blends) have unique service fittings (permanently installed) and proper labeling. The EPA also requires shops to use a separate dedicated recovery/recycling machine for R-12 and R-134a, plus one or more additional recovery only machines for any other refrigerants that might be used. For this reason, many shops may choose to avoid blends. But fleets may find blends to be an acceptable alternative if they don’t want to convert (or it would cost too much to convert) their vehicles over to R-134a.

To protect recycling equipment and customer’s vehicles against cross-contamination or bad refrigerant, service facilities should use a refrigerant identifier to check every vehicle before it is serviced. An identifier can also help the shop monitor the quality of their recycled refrigerant as well as any virgin refrigerant that might be purchased.

Most identifiers that are available today can only tell you if the system contains pure R-12, R-134a, hydrocarbons, or R-22 or an "unknown" refrigerant. Each blend has its own characteristic finger print, but because of the fractionation problem getting a precise fix on exactly what’s in a vehicle isn’t as easy as it sounds.

The best advise is this: if you don’t know what type of refrigerant is in your vehicle, take it to a shop that has a refrigerant identifier and have it checked. Intermixing different refrigerants can cause cooling problems as well as shorten the life of the compressor.

CONTAMINATION ALERT!
As the use of alternative refrigerants grows, so does the risk of cross-contamination. A recent survey by the Florida EPA revealed some startling results. When they tested the refrigerant recovery tanks in about 100 shops, here’s what they found:

Thirty-eight percent of the recovery tanks showed some type of contamination! Independent repair garages and service shops had the lowest rate of contamination, but it was still 32% (nearly one out of three). Used car dealers were the worst, with 71% of their recovery tanks (almost three out of four) showing signs of contamination.

Air contamination was the worst problem, being present in 22% of the tanks tested overall. But cross-contamination between R-12 and R-134a was also found in 15% of the tanks. The most cross-contamination (29%) was discovered in used car dealers.

RETROFIT OR NOT?
The OEMS say R-12 should be used in all R-12 systems as long as it is available because R-12 provides the best cooling performance in these applications. They say there’s no need to retrofit to R-134a or to use any other refrigerant as long as the system is cooling normally. But if the system requires major repairs such as a new compressor or condenser, the cost to retrofit may be justified.

The OEMS say switching an older R-12 system to R-134a does not require a lot of modifications in many instances. Changing the accumulator or receiver-dryer, removing the old compressor oil and replacing the high pressure switch is generally all that’s needed—a job that can usually be done for less than $200. For more information, consider purchasing the R134A RETROFIT GUIDE (http://www.carleysoftware.com/retrofit.htm)on this website.

OEM as well as aftermarket retrofit kits are now available for such conversions. But some vehicles (namely those with viton compressor seals, compressors that can’t handle higher head pressures or have small condensers) aren’t so easy to convert. Changing some of these vehicles over to R-134a requires extensive and expensive modifications. So for these applications there are no kits or easy answers—other than to switch to a blend refrigerant if R-12 becomes too expensive or is unavailable.

Brian R.
09-17-2006, 08:04 PM
OBDII DTC CODES

A primer on OBDII DTC codes:
http://www.overboost.com/story.asp?id=1286&r=1

See also:
http://www.obd-codes.com/trouble_codes/index.php

Here are a list of generic and Toyota-specific DTC codes from http://www.iequus.com/assets/manuals/3100E.pdf

DTC Codes in BOLD have troubleshooting guide at the end of this post.

The above document also provided Manufacturer-specific DTC codes for Honda, General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler.

DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE DEFINITIONS
The following Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions lists represent the most complete information currently available. OBD II is an evolving system, and new codes and definitions will be added as the system matures. ALWAYS consult the vehicle’s service manual for code definitions not included in these lists.

The following code definition lists provide both Generic Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions and Manufacturer-Specific Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions for the following vehicles:

• OBD II Powertrain “GENERIC” (P0XXX) Diagnostic Trouble Codes. OBD II Generic Diagnostic Trouble Codes and their definitions apply to all makes and models of import and domestic vehicles that are “OBD II COMPLIANT”.

• OBD II Powertrain “MANUFACTURER SPECIFIC” (P1XXX) Diagnostic Trouble Codes. OBD II Manufacturer-Specific Diagnostic Trouble Codes and their definitions apply only to vehicles produced by the specific manufacturer (Ford, GM, Toyota etc.).

GENERIC OBD II CODE DEFINITIONS
P0010 "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Circuit (Bank 1)
P0011 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 1)
P0012 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 1)
P0013 "B" Camshaft Position - Actuator Circuit (Bank 1)
P0014 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 1)
P0015 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 1)
P0020 "A" Camshaft Position Actuator Circuit (Bank 2)
P0021 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 2)
P0022 "A" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 2)
P0023 "B" Camshaft Position - Actuator Circuit (Bank 2)
P0024 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 2)
P0025 "B" Camshaft Position - Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 2)
P0030 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0031 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0032 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0033 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit
P0034 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit Low
P0035 Turbo Charger Bypass Valve Control Circuit High
P0036 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0037 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0038 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0042 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0043 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0044 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0050 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0051 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0052 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0056 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0057 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0058 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0062 HO2S Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0063 HO2S Heater Control Circuit Low (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0064 HO2S Heater Control Circuit High (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0065 Air Assisted Injector Control Range/Performance
P0066 Air Assisted Injector Control Circuit or Circuit Low
P0067 Air Assisted Injector Control Circuit High
P0070 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0071 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Range/Performance
P0072 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0073 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit High Input
P0074 Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0075 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 1)
P0076 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0077 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0078 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 1)
P0079 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0080 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0081 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 2)
P0082 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0083 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 2)
P0084 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit (Bank 2)
P0085 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0086 Exhaust Valve Control Solenoid Circuit High (Bank 2)

P0100 Mass or Volume Air Flow Circuit Malfunction
P0101 Mass or Volume Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0102 Mass or Volume Circuit Low Input
P0103 Mass or Volume Circuit High Input
P0104 Mass or Volume Circuit Intermittent
P0105 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Malfunction
P0106 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0107 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Low Input
P0108 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit High Input
P0109 Manifold Absolute Pressure/Barometric Pressure Circuit Intermittent
P0110 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Malfunction
P0111 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0112 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Low Input
P0113 Intake Air Temperature Circuit High Input
P0114 Intake Air Temperature Circuit Intermittent
P0115 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Malfunction
P0116 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0117 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Low Input
P0118 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit High Input
P0119 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Intermittent
P0120 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Malfunction
P0121 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0122 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Low Input
P0123 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit High Input
P0124 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit Intermittent
P0125 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Closed Loop Fuel Control
P0126 Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Stable Operation
P0127 Intake Air Temperature Too High
P0128 Coolant Thermostat (Coolant Temperature Below Thermostat Regulating Temperature)
P0130 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0131 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0132 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0133 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0134 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0135 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 1)
P0136 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0137 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0138 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0139 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0140 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0141 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 2)
P0142 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0143 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0144 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0145 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0146 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0147 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 Sensor 3)
P0148 Fuel Delivery Error
P0149 Fuel Timing Error
P0150 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0151 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0152 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0153 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0154 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0155 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 1)
P0156 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0157 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0158 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0159 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0160 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0161 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 2)
P0162 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0163 O2 Sensor Circuit Low Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0164 O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0165 O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0166 O2 Sensor Circuit No Activity Detected (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0167 O2 Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2 Sensor 3)
P0168 Fuel Temperature Too High
P0169 Incorrect Fuel Composition
P0170 Fuel Trim Malfunction (Bank 1)
P0171 System too Lean (Bank 1)
P0172 System too Rich (Bank 1)
P0173 Fuel Trim Malfunction (Bank 2)
P0174 System too Lean (Bank 2)
P0175 System too Rich (Bank 2)
P0176 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0177 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0178 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0179 Fuel Composition Sensor Circuit High Input
P0180 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Malfunction
P0181 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0182 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Low Input
P0183 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit High Input
P0184 Fuel Temperature Sensor A Circuit Intermittent
P0185 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Malfunction
P0186 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0187 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Low Input
P0188 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit High Input
P0189 Fuel Temperature Sensor B Circuit Intermittent
P0190 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0191 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0192 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0193 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0194 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0195 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Malfunction
P0196 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Range/Performance
P0197 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Low
P0198 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor High
P0199 Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Intermittent

P0200 Injector Circuit Malfunction
P0201 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 1
P0202 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 2
P0203 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 3
P0204 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 4
P0205 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 5
P0206 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 6
P0207 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 7
P0208 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 8
P0209 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 9
P0210 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 10
P0211 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 11
P0212 Injector Circuit Malfunction - Cylinder 12
P0213 Cold Start Injector 1 Malfunction
P0214 Cold Start Injector 2 Malfunction
P0215 Engine Shutoff Solenoid Malfunction
P0216 Injection Timing Control Circuit Malfunction
P0217 Engine Overtemp Condition
P0218 Transmission Over Temperature Condition
P0219 Engine Overspeed Condition
P0220 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Malfunction
P0221 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0222 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Low Input
P0223 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit High Input
P0224 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch B Circuit Intermittent
P0225 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Malfunction
P0226 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Range/Performance Problem
P0227 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Low Input
P0228 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit High Input
P0229 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch C Circuit Intermittent
P0230 Fuel Pump Primary Circuit Malfunction
P0231 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit Low
P0232 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit High
P0233 Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit Intermittent
P0234 Engine Overboost Condition
P0235 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit Malfunction
P0236 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0237 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit Low
P0238 Turbocharger Boost Sensor A Circuit High
P0239 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit Malfunction
P0240 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0241 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit Low
P0242 Turbocharger Boost Sensor B Circuit High
P0243 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A Malfunction
P0244 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A Range/Performance
P0245 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A Low
P0246 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid A High
P0247 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B Malfunction
P0248 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B Range/Performance
P0249 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B Low
P0250 Turbocharger Wastegate Solenoid B High
P0251 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Malfunction
P0252 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Range/Performance
P0253 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Low
P0254 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam High
P0255 Injection Pump A Rotor/Cam Intermitted
P0256 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Malfunction
P0257 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Range/Performance
P0258 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Low
P0259 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam High
P0260 Injection Pump B Rotor/Cam Intermitted
P0261 Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit Low
P0262 Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit High
P0263 Cylinder 1 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0264 Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit Low
P0265 Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit High
P0266 Cylinder 2 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0267 Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit Low
P0268 Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit High
P0269 Cylinder 3 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0270 Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit Low
P0271 Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit High
P0272 Cylinder 4 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0273 Cylinder 5 Injector Circuit Low
P0274 Cylinder 5 Injector Circuit High
P0275 Cylinder 5 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0276 Cylinder 6 Injector Circuit Low
P0277 Cylinder 6 Injector Circuit High
P0278 Cylinder 6 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0279 Cylinder 7 Injector Circuit Low
P0280 Cylinder 7 Injector Circuit High
P0281 Cylinder 7 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0282 Cylinder 8 Injector Circuit Low
P0283 Cylinder 8 Injector Circuit High
P0284 Cylinder 8 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0285 Cylinder 9 Injector Circuit Low
P0286 Cylinder 9 Injector Circuit High
P0287 Cylinder 9 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0288 Cylinder 10 Injector Circuit Low
P0289 Cylinder 10 Injector Circuit High
P0290 Cylinder 10 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0291 Cylinder 11 Injector Circuit Low
P0292 Cylinder 11 Injector Circuit High
P0293 Cylinder 11 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0294 Cylinder 12 Injector Circuit Low
P0295 Cylinder 12 Injector Circuit High
P0296 Cylinder 12 Contribution/Balance Fault
P0298 Engine Oil Over Temperature

P0300 Random/Multiple Cylinder Misfire Detected
P0301 Cylinder 1 Misfire Detected
P0302 Cylinder 2 Misfire Detected
P0303 Cylinder 3 Misfire Detected
P0304 Cylinder 4 Misfire Detected
P0305 Cylinder 5 Misfire Detected
P0306 Cylinder 6 Misfire Detected
P0307 Cylinder 7 Misfire Detected
P0308 Cylinder 8 Misfire Detected
P0309 Cylinder 9 Misfire Detected
P0310 Cylinder 10 Misfire Detected
P0311 Cylinder 11 Misfire Detected
P0312 Cylinder 12 Misfire Detected
P0313 Misfire Detected with Low Fuel
P0314 Single Cylinder Misfire (Cylinder not specified)
P0320 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Malfunction
P0321 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Range/Performance
P0322 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit No Signal
P0323 Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Intermittent
P0324 Knock Control System Error
P0325 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0326 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0327 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Low Input (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0328 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit High Input (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0329 Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Intermittent (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0330 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2)
P0331 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0332 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)
P0333 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit High Input (Bank 2)
P0334 Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)
P0335 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Malfunction
P0336 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0337 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Low Input
P0338 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit High Input
P0339 Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Intermittent
P0340 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0341 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0342 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0343 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit High Input
P0344 Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0345 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit (Bank 2)
P0346 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0347 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)
P0348 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit High Input (Bank 2)
P0349 Camshaft Position Sensor "A" Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)
P0350 Ignition Coil Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0351 Ignition Coil A Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0352 Ignition Coil B Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0353 Ignition Coil C Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0354 Ignition Coil D Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0355 Ignition Coil E Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0356 Ignition Coil F Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0357 Ignition Coil G Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0358 Ignition Coil H Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0359 Ignition Coil I Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0360 Ignition Coil J Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0361 Ignition Coil K Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0362 Ignition Coil L Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction
P0365 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit (Bank 1)
P0366 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0367 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Low Input (Bank 1)
P0368 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit High Input (Bank 1)
P0369 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent (Bank 1)
P0370 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Malfunction
P0371 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Too Many Pulses
P0372 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Too Few Pulses
P0373 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Intermittent/ Erratic Pulses
P0374 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A No Pulses
P0375 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Malfunction
P0376 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Too Many Pulses
P0377 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Too Few Pulses
P0378 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Intermittent/ Erratic Pulses
P0379 Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B No Pulses
P0380 Glow Plug/Heater Circuit Malfunction
P0381 Glow Plug/Heater Indicator Circuit Malfunction
P0382 Glow Plug/Heater Circuit "B" Malfunction
P0385 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Malfunction
P0386 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance
P0387 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Low Input
P0388 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit High Input
P0389 Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Intermittent
P0390 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit (Bank 2)
P0391 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0392 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)
P0393 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit High Input (Bank 2)
P0394 Camshaft Position Sensor "B" Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)

P0400 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Malfunction
P0401 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Insufficient Detected
P0402 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Excessive Detected
P0403 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Circuit Malfunction
P0404 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Circuit Range/Performance
P0405 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor A Circuit Low
P0406 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor A Circuit High
P0407 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor B Circuit Low
P0408 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor B Circuit High
P0409 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "A" Circuit
P0410 Secondary Air Injection System Malfunction
P0411 Secondary Air Injection System Incorrect Flow Detected
P0412 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve A Circuit Malfunction
P0413 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve A Circuit Open
P0414 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve A Circuit Shorted
P0415 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve B Circuit Malfunction
P0416 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve B Circuit Open
P0417 Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve B Circuit Shorted
P0418 Secondary Air Injection System Relay "A" Circuit Malfunction
P0419 Secondary Air Injection System Relay "B" Circuit Malfunction
P0420 Catalyst System Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0421 Warm Up Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0422 Main Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0423 Heated Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0424 Heated Catalyst Temperature Below Threshold (Bank 1)
P0425 Catalyst Temperature Sensor (Bank 1)
P0426 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0427 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Low Input (Bank 1)
P0428 Catalyst Temperature Sensor High Input (Bank 1)
P0429 Catalyst Heater Control Circuit (Bank 1)
P0430 Catalyst System Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0431 Warm Up Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0432 Main Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0433 Heated Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0434 Heated Catalyst Temperature Below Threshold (Bank 2)
P0435 Catalyst Temperature Sensor (Bank 2)
P0436 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0437 Catalyst Temperature Sensor Low Input (Bank 2)
P0438 Catalyst Temperature Sensor High Input (Bank 2)
P0439 Catalyst Heater Control Circuit (Bank 2)
P0440 Evaporative Emission Control System Malfunction
P0441 Evaporative Emission Control System Incorrect Purge Flow
P0442 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (small leak)
P0443 Evaporative Emission Control System Purge Control Valve Circuit Malfunction
P0444 Evaporative Emission Control System Purge Control Valve Circuit Open
P0445 Evaporative Emission Control System Purge Control Valve Circuit Shorted
P0446 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Control Circuit Malfunction
P0447 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Control Circuit Open
P0448 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Control Circuit Shorted
P0449 Evaporative Emission Control System Vent Valve/Solenoid Circuit Malfunction
P0450 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Malfunction
P0451 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Range/Performance
P0452 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Low Input
P0453 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor High Input
P0454 Evaporative Emission Control System Pressure Sensor Intermittent
P0455 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (gross leak)
P0456 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (very small leak)
P0457 Evaporative Emission Control System Leak Detected (fuel cap loose/off)
P0460 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0461 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0462 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0463 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit High Input
P0464 Fuel Level Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0465 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0466 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0467 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0468 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit High Input
P0469 Purge Flow Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0470 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Malfunction
P0471 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Range/Performance
P0472 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Low
P0473 Exhaust Pressure Sensor High
P0474 Exhaust Pressure Sensor Intermittent
P0475 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Malfunction
P0476 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Range/Performance
P0477 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Low
P0478 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve High
P0479 Exhaust Pressure Control Valve Intermittent
P0480 Cooling Fan 1 Control Circuit Malfunction
P0481 Cooling Fan 2 Control Circuit Malfunction
P0482 Cooling Fan 3 Control Circuit Malfunction
P0483 Cooling Fan Rationality Check Malfunction
P0484 Cooling Fan Circuit Over Current
P0485 Cooling Fan Power/Ground Circuit Malfunction
P0486 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor "B" Circuit
P0487 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Throttle Position Control Circuit
P0488 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Throttle Position Control Range/Performance
P0491 Secondary Air Injection System (Bank 1)
P0492 Secondary Air Injection System (Bank 2)

P0500 Vehicle Speed Sensor Malfunction
P0501 Vehicle Speed Sensor Range/Performance
P0502 Vehicle Speed Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0503 Vehicle Speed Sensor Intermittent/Erratic/High
P0505 Idle Control System Malfunction
P0506 Idle Control System RPM Lower Than Expected
P0507 Idle Control System RPM Higher Than Expected
P0508 Idle Control System Circuit Low
P0509 Idle Control System Circuit High
P0510 Closed Throttle Position Switch Malfunction
P0512 Starter Request Circuit
P0513 Incorrect Immobilizer Key ("Immobilizer" pending SAE J1930 approval)
P0515 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit
P0516 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit Low
P0517 Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit High
P0520 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch Circuit Malfunction
P0521 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch Range/Performance
P0522 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch Low Voltage
P0523 Engine Oil Pressure/Switch High Voltage
P0524 Engine Oil Pressure Too Low
P0530 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0531 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0532 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0533 A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0534 Air Conditioner Refrigerant Charge Loss
P0540 Intake Air Heater Circuit
P0541 Intake Air Heater Circuit Low
P0542 Intake Air Heater Circuit High
P0544 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit (Bank 1)
P0545 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0546 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0547 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit (Bank 2)
P0548 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0549 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit High (Bank 2)
P0550 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0551 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0552 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0553 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit High Input
P0554 Power Steering Pressure Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0560 System Voltage Malfunction
P0561 System Voltage Unstable
P0562 System Voltage Low
P0563 System Voltage High
P0564 Cruise Control Multi-Function Input Signal
P0565 Cruise Control On Signal Malfunction
P0566 Cruise Control Off Signal Malfunction
P0567 Cruise Control Resume Signal Malfunction
P0568 Cruise Control Set Signal Malfunction
P0569 Cruise Control Coast Signal Malfunction
P0570 Cruise Control Accel Signal Malfunction
P0571 Cruise Control/Brake Switch A Circuit Malfunction
P0572 Cruise Control/Brake Switch A Circuit Low
P0573 Cruise Control/Brake Switch A Circuit High
P0574 Cruise Control System - Vehicle Speed Too High
P0575 Cruise Control Input Circuit
P0576 Cruise Control Input Circuit Low
P0577 Cruise Control Input Circuit High
P0578-P0580 Reserved for Cruise Control Codes

P0600 Serial Communication Link Malfunction
P0601 Internal Control Module Memory Check Sum Error
P0602 Control Module Programming Error
P0603 Internal Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM) Error
P0604 Internal Control Module Random Access Memory (RAM) Error
P0605 Internal Control Module Read Only Memory (ROM) Error
P0606 PCM Processor Fault
P0607 Control Module Performance
P0608 Control Module VSS Output "A" Malfunction
P0609 Control Module VSS Output "B" Malfunction
P0610 Control Module Vehicle Options Error
P0615 Starter Relay Circuit
P0616 Starter Relay Circuit Low
P0617 Starter Relay Circuit High
P0618 Alternative Fuel Control Module KAM Error
P0619 Alternative Fuel Control Module RAM/ROM Error
P0620 Generator Control Circuit Malfunction
P0621 Generator Lamp "L" Control Circuit Malfunction
P0622 Generator Field "F" Control Circuit Malfunction
P0623 Generator Lamp Control Circuit
P0624 Fuel Cap Lamp Control Circuit
P0630 VIN Not Programmed or Mismatch - ECM/PCM
P0631 VIN Not Programmed or Mismatch - TCM
P0635 Power Steering Control Circuit
P0636 Power Steering Control Circuit Low
P0637 Power Steering Control Circuit High
P0638 Throttle Actuator Control Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0639 Throttle Actuator Control Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0640 Intake Air Heater Control Circuit
P0645 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit
P0646 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit Low
P0647 A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit High
P0648 Immobilizer Lamp Control Circuit ("Immobilizer" pending SAE J1930 approval)
P0649 Speed Control Lamp Control Circuit
P0650 Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) Control Circuit Malfunction
P0654 Engine RPM Output Circuit Malfunction
P0655 Engine Hot Lamp Output Control Circuit Malfunction
P0656 Fuel Level Output Circuit Malfunction
P0660 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit (Bank 1)
P0661 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit Low (Bank 1)
P0662 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit High (Bank 1)
P0663 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit (Bank 2)
P0664 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit Low (Bank 2)
P0665 Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control Circuit High (Bank 2)

P0700 Transmission Control System Malfunction
P0701 Transmission Control System Range/Performance
P0702 Transmission Control System Electrical
P0703 Torque Converter/Brake Switch B Circuit Malfunction
P0704 Clutch Switch Input Circuit Malfunction
P0705 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Malfunction (PRNDL Input)
P0706 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0707 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0708 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit High Input
P0709 Transmission Range Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0710 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0711 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0712 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0713 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit High Input
P0714 Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0715 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0716 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0717 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0718 Input/Turbine Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0719 Torque Converter/Brake Switch B Circuit Low
P0720 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0721 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0722 Output Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0723 Output Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0724 Torque Converter/Brake Switch B Circuit High
P0725 Engine Speed Input Circuit Malfunction
P0726 Engine Speed Input Circuit Range/Performance
P0727 Engine Speed Input Circuit No Signal
P0728 Engine Speed Input Circuit Intermittent
P0730 Incorrect Gear Ratio
P0731 Gear 1 Incorrect Ratio
P0732 Gear 2 Incorrect Ratio
P0733 Gear 3 Incorrect Ratio
P0734 Gear 4 Incorrect Ratio
P0735 Gear 5 Incorrect Ratio
P0736 Reverse Incorrect Ratio
P0737 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit
P0738 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit Low
P0739 TCM Engine Speed Output Circuit High
P0740 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Malfunction
P0741 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Performance or Stuck Off
P0742 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Stuck On
P0743 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Electrical
P0744 Torque Converter Clutch Circuit Intermittent
P0745 Pressure Control Solenoid Malfunction
P0746 Pressure Control Solenoid Performance or Stuck Off
P0747 Pressure Control Solenoid Stuck On
P0748 Pressure Control Solenoid Electrical
P0749 Pressure Control Solenoid Intermittent
P0750 Shift Solenoid A Malfunction
P0751 Shift Solenoid A Performance or Stuck Off
P0752 Shift Solenoid A Stuck On
P0753 Shift Solenoid A Electrical
P0754 Shift Solenoid A Intermittent
P0755 Shift Solenoid B Malfunction
P0756 Shift Solenoid B Performance or Stuck Off
P0757 Shift Solenoid B Stuck On
P0758 Shift Solenoid B Electrical
P0759 Shift Solenoid B Intermittent
P0760 Shift Solenoid C Malfunction
P0761 Shift Solenoid C Performance or Stuck Off
P0762 Shift Solenoid C Stuck On
P0763 Shift Solenoid C Electrical
P0764 Shift Solenoid C Intermittent
P0765 Shift Solenoid D Malfunction
P0766 Shift Solenoid D Performance or Stuck Off
P0767 Shift Solenoid D Stuck On
P0768 Shift Solenoid D Electrical
P0769 Shift Solenoid D Intermittent
P0770 Shift Solenoid E Malfunction
P0771 Shift Solenoid E Performance or Stuck Off
P0772 Shift Solenoid E Stuck On
P0773 Shift Solenoid E Electrical
P0774 Shift Solenoid E Intermittent
P0775 Pressure Control Solenoid "B"
P0776 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Performance or Stuck Off
P0777 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Stuck On
P0778 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Electrical
P0779 Pressure Control Solenoid "B" Intermittent
P0780 Shift Malfunction
P0781 1-2 Shift Malfunction
P0782 2-3 Shift Malfunction
P0783 3-4 Shift Malfunction
P0784 4-5 Shift Malfunction
P0785 Shift/Timing Solenoid Malfunction
P0786 Shift/Timing Solenoid Range/Performance
P0787 Shift/Timing Solenoid Low
P0788 Shift/Timing Solenoid High
P0789 Shift/Timing Solenoid Intermittent
P0790 Normal/Performance Switch Circuit Malfunction
P0791 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit
P0792 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0793 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit No Signal
P0794 Intermediate Shaft Speed Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0795 Pressure Control Solenoid "C"
P0796 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Performance or Stuck Off
P0797 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Stuck On
P0798 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Electrical
P0799 Pressure Control Solenoid "C" Intermittent

P0801 Reverse Inhibit Control Circuit Malfunction
P0803 1-4 Upshift (Skip Shift) Solenoid Control Circuit Malfunction
P0804 1-4 Upshift (Skip Shift) Lamp Control Circuit Malfunction
P0805 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit
P0806 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P0807 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Low
P0808 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit High
P0809 Clutch Position Sensor Circuit Intermittent
P0810 Clutch Position Control Error
P0811 Excessive Clutch Slippage
P0812 Reverse Input Circuit
P0813 Reverse Output Circuit
P0814 Transmission Range Display Circuit
P0815 Upshift Switch Circuit
P0816 Downshift Switch Circuit
P0817 Starter Disable Circuit
P0818 Driveline Disconnect Switch Input Circuit
P0820 Gear Lever X-Y Position Sensor Circuit
P0821 Gear Lever X Position Circuit
P0822 Gear Lever Y Position Circuit
P0823 Gear Lever X Position Circuit Intermittent
P0824 Gear Lever Y Position Circuit Intermittent
P0825 Gear Lever Push-Pull Switch (Shift Anticipate)
P0830 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit
P0831 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit Low
P0832 Clutch Pedal Switch "A" Circuit High
P0833 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit
P0834 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit Low
P0835 Clutch Pedal Switch "B" Circuit High
P0836 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit
P0837 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit Range/Performance
P0838 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit Low
P0839 Four Wheel Drive (4WD) Switch Circuit High
P0840 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit
P0841 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Range/Performance
P0842 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Low
P0843 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit High
P0844 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "A" Circuit Intermittent
P0845 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit
P0846 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Range/Performance
P0847 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Low
P0848 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit High
P0849 Transmission Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch "B" Circuit Intermittent

TOYOTA-SPECIFIC OBD II CODE DEFINITIONS
P1100 BARO Sensor Circuit malfunction
P1120 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P1121 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Range/Performance Problem
P1125 Throttle Control Motor Circuit Malfunction
P1126 Magnetic Clutch Circuit Malfunction
P1127 ETCS Actuator Power Source Circuit Malfunction
P1128 Throttle Control Motor Lock Malfunction
P1129 Electric Throttle Control System Malfunction
P1130 Air-Fuel Sensor Circuit Range/Performance
P1133 Air-Fuel Sensor Circuit Response Malfunction
P1135 Air-Fuel Sensor Heater Circuit Response Malfunction
P1150 A/F Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Malfunction
P1153 A./F Sensor Circuit Response Malfunction
P1155 A/F Sensor Heater Circuit Malfunction

P1200 Fuel Pump Relay Circuit Malfunction

P1300 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 1
P1305 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 2 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1310 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 2 (Except 1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1310 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 3 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1315 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 4 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser, 2000 Celica & Tundra)
P1320 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 5 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1325 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 6 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1330 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 7 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1335 No CKP Sensor Signal Engine Running
P1340 Igniter Circuit Malfunction No. 8 (1998-2000 Land Cruiser & 2000 Tundra)
P1346 VVT Sensor /Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Problem (Bank 1)
P1349 VVT System Malfunction
P1351 VVT Sensor /Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Problem (Bank 2)

P1400 Sub-Throttle Position Sensor Malfunction
P1401 Sub-Throttle Position Sensor Range/Performance Problem
P1405 Turbo Pressure Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P1406 Turbo Pressure Sensor Range/Performance Problem
P1410 EGR Valve Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P1411 EGR Valve Position Sensor Circuit Ranger/Performance

P1500 Starter Signal Circuit Malfunction
P1510 Boost Pressure Control Circuit Malfunction
P1511 Boost Pressure Low Malfunction
P1512 Boost Pressure High Malfunction
P1520 Stop Lamp Switch Signal Malfunction
P1565 Cruise Control Main Switch Circuit Malfunction

P1600 ECM BATT Malfunction
P1605 Knock Control CPU Malfunction
P1630 Traction Control System Malfunction
P1633 ECM Malfunction ECTS Circuit
P1645 Body ECU Malfunction
P1652 IACV Control Circuit Malfunction
P1656 OCV Circuit Malfunction
P1658 Waste Gate Valve Control Circuit Malfunction
P1661 EGR Circuit Malfunction
P1662 EGR By-Pass Valve Control Circuit Malfunction
P1690 OCV Circuit Malfunction
P1692 OCV Open Malfunction
P1693 OCV Closed Malfunction

P1780 PNP Switch Malfunction

****************************

TROUBLESHOOTING SOME COMMON CODES

P0100
Mass or volume sensor or circuit

Possible Problems
MAF may be disconnected, or a wiring connection may be bad. MAF sensor may be faulty.

Reset the code and see if it comes back.
Verify that the Mass Air Flow Sensor wiring is connected properly and that there are no broken /frayed wires.
Unplug and reconnect the MAF wiring harness
Check the voltage of the MAF sensor (refer to a repair manual for vehicle specific information)
Replace the MAF sensor

P0101
Mass or volume Circuit Range/Performance Problem

Possible Problems
Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor or circuit. The PCM detects that the actual MAF sensor frequency signal is not within a predetermined range of the calculated MAF value for more than 4.0 seconds.

Reset the code and see if it comes back
Inspect for the following conditions:
An incorrectly routed harness--Inspect the harness of the MAF sensor in order to verify that it is not routed too close to the following components:
- The secondary ignition wires or coils
- Any solenoids
- Any relays
- Any motors
A low minimum air rate through the sensor bore may cause this DTC to set at idle or during deceleration. Inspect for any vacuum leaks downstream of the MAF sensor.
A wide open throttle (WOT) acceleration from a stop should cause the MAF sensor g/s display on the scan tool to increase rapidly. This increase should be from 6-12 g/s at idle to 230 g/s or more at the time of the 1-2 shift. If the increase is not observed, inspect for a restriction in the induction system or the exhaust system.
The barometric pressure (BARO) that is used in order to calculate the predicted MAF value is initially based on the MAP sensor at key ON.
When the engine is running the MAP sensor value is continually updated near WOT. A skewed MAP sensor will cause the calculated MAF value to be inaccurate. The value shown for the MAP sensor display varies with the altitude. With the ignition ON and the engine OFF, 103 kPa is the approximate value near sea level. This value will decrease by approximately 3 kPa for every 305 meters (1,000 feet) of altitude.
A high resistance on the ground circuit of the MAP sensor can cause this DTC to set.
Any loss of vacuum to the MAP sensor can cause this DTC to set.

P0102
Mass or volume Circuit Low Input
Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor or circuit. MAF circuit had lower than expected voltage (air flow).

Possible Problems
The MAF may be disconnected, or a wiring connection may be bad
The MAF may be dirty or otherwise contaminated (if you use an oiled air filter such as a K&N air filter, some of the oil may have made it's way onto the MAF sensor).
The MAF sensor may be faulty
The vehicle computer may be faulty (very rare)

reset the code and see if it comes back.
Verify that the Mass Air Flow Sensor wiring is connected properly and that there are no broken / frayed wires.
Inspect for any air leaks near the MAF sensor.
Take the MAF out and clean it using a spray cleaner such as brake cleaner or electrical contact cleaner. Be gentle with the sensor.
Check the voltage of the MAF sensor (refer to a repair manual for vehicle specific information)
Replace the MAF sensor.

P0103
Mass or Volume Circuit High Input.

Possible Problems
Mass Air Flow High (MAF) sensor or circuit. MAF circuit had higher than expected voltage (air flow).

The MAF may be disconnected, or a wiring connection may be bad
The MAF sensor may be damaged
The vehicle computer may be faulty (very rare)
reset the code and see if it comes back.
Verify that the Mass Air Flow Sensor wiring is connected properly and that there are no broken / frayed wires.
Inspect for any air leaks near the MAF sensor.
Take the MAF out and clean it using a spray cleaner such as brake cleaner or electrical contact cleaner. Be gentle with the sensor.
Check the voltage of the MAF sensor (refer to a repair manual for vehicle specific information)
Replace the MAF sensor.

P0104
Mass or Volume Circuit Intermittent

Possible Problems
Mass Air Flow High (MAF) sensor or circuit. MAF is producing incorrect air flow readings.

The mass air flow (MAF) circuit is incomplete (broken/frayed wire, etc.)
There is an air leak in the intake system

Reset the code and see if it comes back.
Verify that the Mass Air Flow Sensor wiring is connected properly and that there are no broken / frayed wires.
Inspect for any air leaks near the MAF sensor.
Check the voltage of the MAF sensor (refer to a repair manual for vehicle specific information)
Replace the MAF sensor.

P0105
The description of the expected voltages for the MAP sensor output (backprobing Terminal 2) in the Haynes manual is incorrect. The voltages listed are not the expected voltages, they are the voltage drops expected from the reference voltage.

With the MAP connector attached and the ignition on and the vacuum line disconnected, measure the reference voltage by backprobing terminals 2 and 1. Measure the voltages at these same connectors while applying different vacuums at the port. If your reference voltage without vacuum is 3 volts (for example), then you should see the following voltages at these vacuums:

3.94 in Hg 2.5-2.7 V [3.0 V (reference voltage) minus 0.5-0.3 V]
7.87 in Hg 2.1-2.3 V (3.0 minus 0.9-0.7 V)
11.81 in Hg 1.7-1.9 V (3.0 minus 1.3-1.1 V)
15.75 in Hg 1.3-1.5 V (3.0 minus 1.7-1.5 V)
19.69 in Hg 0.9-1.1 V (3.0 minus 2.1-1.9 V)

Although your MAP may not exactly match what is listed above, the trend should be the same. I don't think there is anything magical about these absolute numbers, it is having a smooth trend that is important. There is bound to be some variation.

P0123
Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch A Circuit High Input

Possible Problems
Computer has detected that the TPS (throttle position sensor) is reporting too high a voltage.
Symptoms may include: Rough idle, High idle, Surging, or other symptoms may also be present

TPS not mounted securely
TPS circuit short to ground or another wire
Faulty TPS
Damaged computer (PCM)

If there are no symptoms, the simplest thing to do is to reset the code and see if it comes back.
If engine is stumbling or hesitating, carefully inspect all wiring and connectors that lead to the TPS. More than likely the problem is with the TPS wiring.
Check the voltage at the TPS (refer to a service manual for your vehicle for this specific information). If the voltage spikes or is too high (over 4.65 volts with key on, engine off), then that is indicative of a problem.
Carefully trace each wire from the TPS wiring harness to check for breaks, rubbing against other components, etc.

P0125
Insufficient Coolant Temperature for Closed Loop Fuel Control

Possible Problems
After the engine is warmed up, oxygen sensor output does not indicated RICH even once when conditions warrant and continue for at least 1.5 min.
Conditions: Engine speed 1,500 rpm or more, and speed 25-62 mph and throttle valve not completely closed.

Open or short in HO2 sensor circuit or oxygen sensor

or

Engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor indicates that the engine has not reached the required temperature level to enter closed-loop operation within a specified amount of time after starting the engine.

Insufficient warm up time
Low engine coolant level
Leaking or stuck open thermostat
Faulty coolant temperature sensor

P0132
O2 Sensor Circuit High Voltage (Bank 1 Sensor 1)

Possible Problems
Front oxygen sensor on the driver's side reading is too high.

The oxygen sensor heater circuit is shorted out
The wiring to the sensor is broken / frayed (less likely)

Replace Front driver's side front oxygen sensor. <= Most likely

Other possibilities
Check for wiring problems (shorted, frayed wires)
Check the voltage of the oxygen sensor

P0133
O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 1)

Possible Problems
Front oxygen sensor on the driver's side voltage output is slower than 1 second rich to lean or lean to rich during idling after engine is warmed up (2 trip detection logic).

Bad HO2 sensor<= Most likely
Check and fix any exhaust leaks
Check for wiring problems (shorted, frayed wires)
Check the frequency and amplitude of the oxygen sensor (advanced)
Check for a deteriorating / contaminated oxygen sensor, replace if necessary
Check for inlet air leaks
Check the MAF sensor for proper operation
See also P0125 above.

P0139
O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 1 Sensor 2)

Possible Problems
Rear oxygen sensor on the driver's side or the ECM does not adjust the air fuel ratio as expected to do so, or not adjusted as often as expected to do so once the engine is warmed or under normal engine use.

Faulty oxygen sensor
The wiring to the sensor is broken/frayed
There is an exhaust leak

Faulty HO2 Sensor 2 <= Most likely
Check and fix any exhaust leaks
Check for wiring problems (shorted, frayed wires)
Check the frequency and amplitude of the oxygen sensor (advanced)
Check for a deteriorating / contaminated oxygen sensor, replace if necessary
Check for inlet air leaks
Check the MAF sensor for proper operation

P0153
O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 1)

Possible Problems
Front oxygen sensor on the passenger's side voltage output is slower than 1 second rich to lean or lean to rich during idling after engine is warmed up (2 trip detection logic).

Bad HO2 sensor<= Most likely
Check and fix any exhaust leaks
Check for wiring problems (shorted, frayed wires)
Check the frequency and amplitude of the oxygen sensor (advanced)
Check for a deteriorating / contaminated oxygen sensor, replace if necessary
Check for inlet air leaks
Check the MAF sensor for proper operation
See also P0125 above.

P0159
O2 Sensor Circuit Slow Response (Bank 2 Sensor 2)

Possible Problems
Rear oxygen sensor on the passenger side or the ECM is not adjusting the air fuel ratio as expected to do so, or not adjusted as often as expected to do so once the engine is warmed or under normal engine use.

Faulty oxygen sensor
Wiring to the sensor is broken/frayed
Exhaust leak

Replace rear passenger side oxygen sensor.
Check and fix any exhaust leaks
Check for wiring problems (shorted, frayed wires)
Check the frequency and amplitude of the oxygen sensor (advanced)
Check for a deteriorating/contaminated oxygen sensor, replace if necessary
Check for inlet air leaks
Check the MAF sensor for proper operation
See also P0125 above.

P0171
System too Lean (Bank 1)

Possible Problems
When the air fuel ratio feedback is stable after engine warming up, the fuel trim is considerably in error on the LEAN side (2 trip detection logic)

Air intake hose loose
Fuel line pressure low (may be from running out of gas)
Injector blockage
HO2 sensor malfuction
MAF meter malfunction
Engine coolant temperature sensor malfunction

Clean MAF meter with electronic circuit cleaner<= most likely
Fix vacuum/intake leak downstream of MAF meter
Inspect fuel lines for cracks, leaks, or pinches
Replace fuel filter
Check fuel pressure at the fuel rail
Check output of HO2 sensor
Check injector performance
Check ECT sensor

P0172
System too Rich (Bank 1)

Possible Problems
When the air fuel ratio feedback is stable after engine warming up, the fuel trim is considerably in error on the RICH side (2 trip detection logic)

Fuel line pressure high
Injector leak
HO2 sensor malfuction
MAF meter malfunction
Engine coolant temperature sensor malfunction

Clean MAF meter with electronic circuit cleaner<= most likely
Inspect all vacuum and PCV hoses, replace if necessary
Inspect fuel lines for cracks, leaks, or pinches
Check fuel pressure at the fuel rail
Check output of HO2 sensor
Check injector performance
Check ECT sensor
Check for adequate spark and ignition

P0174
System too Lean (Bank 2)
See P0171 for Bank 1

P0175
System too Rich (Bank 2)
See P0172 for Bank 1

P0325
No knock sensor 1 signal to ECM with engine speed 2,000 rpm or more.

Possible Problems
Open or short in knock sensor 1 circuit <= Most likely problem. Check sensor connector for good connection and check wire for damage. Wire is easily damaged when head is removed or similar repair work has been accomplished. Sensor can be tested with ohmmeter. There should be no continuity between the sensor terminal and the sensor body. Replace if there is continuity.
Knock sensor 1 loosness - tighten sensor
ECM

P0330
No knock sensor 2 signal to ECM with engine speed 2,000 rpm or more.

Possible Problems
Open or short in knock sensor 2 circuit <= Most likely problem.Check sensor connector for good connection and check wire for damage. Wire is easily damaged when head is removed or similar repair work has been accomplished. Sensor can be tested with ohmmeter. There should be no continuity between the sensor terminal and the sensor body. Replace if there is continuity.
Knock sensor 2 loosness - tighten sensor
ECM

P0401
After the engine is warmed up, the intake manifold absolute pressure is larger than the value calculated by the ECM while the EGR system is ON (2 trip detection logic).

Possible Problems
EGR valve stuck closed <= Most common Clean EGR valve
EGR Vacuum Switching Valve (VSV)
Open or short in VSV circuit for EGR
EGR valve position sensor open or short circuit
Vacuum or EGR hose disconnected
EGR valve position sensor
Manifold absolute pressure sensor malfunction <=See P0105 above for testing MAP sensor
ECM

P0402
After the engine is warmed up, conditions (a) and (b) continue.

(a) The intake manifold absolute pressure is larger than the value calculated by the ECM while the EGR system is ON.

(b) Misfiring is detected during idling (2 trip detection logic).

Possible Problems
EGR valve stuck open <= Most common Clean EGR valve
Vacuum or EGR hose is connected to wrong post
Manifold absolute pressure sensor malfunction
ECM

P0440
The fuel tank pressure is atmospheric pressure after the vehicle is driven for 20 min (2 trip detection logic).


TSB for 5S-FE
EG013-02 '98 and '99 Camry and Solara




"Under certain driving conditions, some 1998 - 1999 model year Camry and Solara vehicles may exhibit a M.I.L. "ON" with DTCs P0440, P0441 and P0446 stored due to an inoperative Vapor Pressure Sensor







3 way Vacuum Switching Valve (VSV). An improved Vapor Pressure Sensor VSV has been developed to correct this condition."

TSB for 5S-FE 1998







EG003-98

Repair Procedure

A. Diagnostics for PO441:

1. Remove Vacuum Hoses between EVAP VSVand Charcoal Canister and discard.



2. If there is a metal vapor pipe between


EVAP VSV and Charcoal Canister, clean inside of vaporpipe
3. Replace EVAP VSV and Charcoal Canister assembly with new parts.
4. Install new vacuum hoses between EVAP VSV and Charcoal Canister.
B. Diagnostics for P0446:
1. Inspect vacuum hoses and pipes between EVAP (Purge) VSV and Charcoal Canister for leaks.
2. Replace Vapor Pressure VSV and Canister.
NOTE :When performing diagnostics for an occurrence of a MIL "ON" condition, Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) P0441 may be result of debris in Evaporative Emission Control System. This may cause blockage of a vapor line, or a stuck VSV, as described in troubleshooting area of Repair Manual.


Possible Problems
Fuel tank cap incorrectly installed <= Most common
Fuel tank cap cracked or damaged (Toyota part only)
Bad vapor pressure sensor/circuit
Vacuum hose cracked, holed, blocked, damaged or disconnected
Hose or tube cracked, holed, damaged, or loose
Fuel tank/filler neck cracked, holed, or damaged
Charcoal canister cracked, holed, or damaged (collision)

In above description, check hoses between vapor pressur sensor and VSV for vapor pressure sensor and charcoal canister. Also, hose between charcoal canister and fuel tank.

P0441 and/or P0446
Possible Problems
Open or short in VSV circuit for vapor pressure sensor
VSV for vapor pressure sensor
Open or short in vapor pressure sensor circuit
Vapor pressure sensor
Open or short in VSV circuit for EVAP
VSV for EVAP
Vacuum hose cracks, hole, blocked, damaged or disconnected
Charcoal canister cracks, hole, or damaged

(P0446 is not normally associated with a loose or non-sealing gas cap. A loose or non-sealing gas cap triggers P0440)

1. Check the VSV connector for EVAP, VSV connector for vapor pressure sensor and vapor pressure sensor connector for looseness and disconnection

2. Check the vacuum hose between intake manifold and VSV for EVAP, VSV for EVAP and charcoal canister, charcoal canister and VSV for vapor pressure sensor, and VSV for vapor pressure sensor and vapor pressure sensor. Check these hoses for correct connection, looseness, cracks, holes, damage, and blockage.

3. Check voltage between terminals VC and E2 of ECM connector (4.5-5.5 V). (replace ECM if faulty)

4. Check voltages between terminals PTNK and E2 of ECM connector while applying vacuum to vapor pressure sensor (2.9-3.7 V).

If faulty, check for open and short in harness and connector between vapor pressure sensor and ECM. If ok at this point, replace vapor pressure sensor.

If voltage above is ok, Check VSV for EVAP. When ECM terminal EVP is grounded (ignition "ON"), Air should flow in pipe E (inboard on tube) on VSV and out F (outboard on tube) on VSV (Don't use high pressure air for this test). When EVP is not grounded, air does not flow in E and out F.

5. Check operation of VSV for EVAP. Remove VSV from engine. Check that there is continuity between the two terminals (30-34 ohms). If there is no continuity, replace VSV for EVAP.

Check that there is no continuity between either terminal and body. If there is continuity, replace VSV for EVAP.

Check that air does not flow from inner port (E) to outboard port (F).

Check that air flows from port E to F when you apply battery voltage across terminals. If no air flows, replace VSV for EVAP.

6. Check the vacuum hose between intake manifold and VSV for EVAP, and VSV for EVAP and charcoal canister. Check as above.

7. Check for open or short in harness and connector between EFI main-relay and VSV for EVAP and ECM. If faulty, repair or replace harness or connector. If ok, check and replace ECM.

8. Check VSV for vapor pressure sensor. When ECM terminal TPC is grounded (ignition "ON"), Air should flow in pipe E (inboard on tube) on VSV and out F (outboard on tube) on VSV. When TPC is not grounded, air flows out G (outside of connector).

If ok, check and replace charcoal canister.

If not functioning correctly, check function of VSV for vapor pressure sensor. Remove from engine.
Check that there is continuity between the terminals (33-39 ohms). Replace the VSV if there is no continuity.

Check that air flows from port E (inboard in tube) to port G (side of connector).

Check that air flows from port E to port F (outboard in tube) when battery voltage is applied across terminals. Replace VSV if function is incorrect.

9. If good, Check the vacuum hose between charcoal canister and VSV for vapor pressure sensor, and vapor pressure sensor and VSV for vapor pressure sensor - check as above.

11. Check for open and short in harness and connector between EFI main replay and VSV for vapor pressure sensor and ECM.

P0770 Shift Solenoid E Malfunction

Solenoid E (SL) is the torque converter lock-up solenoid. If the torque converter is a little slow locking up, it will set this code. May only be a one-time thing owing to a small particle of something getting jammed in the solenoid. The code may disappear by itself.

If it doesn't right away, check out the color of your tranny fluid. If it is pretty much red or brown and smells ok, then flush the tranny and see if that gets rid of the code. If not, pull out some fluid and add a bottle of Seafoam Trans Tune and run it for 1 or 2k miles. Then flush the transmission again. Check if the code is gone.

If this problem persists, I've been told you'll have to replace the E-solenoid.

There is a Service Bulleting (EG006-00) issued for '00 Siennas on this problem. They get a new torque converter to fix the problem permanently.

The following discussion was submitted by csaxon:

The ECM uses signals from throttle position sensor, airflow meter and crankshaft position sensor to monitor engagement of Torque Converter Clutch (TCC).

The ECM compares engagement condition of TCC with lock-up schedule in memory to detect MECHANICAL trouble of lock-up solenoid, valve body and torque converter. A P0700 trouble code is set when TCC lock-up does not occur during appropriate speed, or lock-up does not release at appropriate speed.

Possible causes are:
* Solenoid is stuck open or closed.
* Valve body clogged or valve stuck.
* TCC malfunction.

There are simple electrical tests to check the solenoid and plunger but the transmission pan must be removed to gain access.

As Brian suggests, if you haven't had your system flushed or changed in awhile it may help but I'm not sure that's cheaper than actually removing the pan and checking the solenoid.

The Toyota service tech can check the system without pan removal with his analyzer.

P1780 PNP Switch Malfunction

http://www.automotiveforums.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=504073

Brian R.
10-07-2006, 02:03 PM
READING YOUR SPARK PLUGS

http://www.dansmc.com/Spark_Plugs/Spark_Plugs_catalog.html

http://www.dragstuff.com/techarticles/reading-spark-plugs.html

Brian R.
11-08-2006, 11:11 PM
POSTING A LINK TO AN IMAGE FILE OR INSERTING AN IMAGE INTO A POST

Get an account at Photobucket.com (or some equivalent host) and upload the images from your computer (or camera directly) to there. Then copy and paste either the Url link to the image file or the Img reference itself to a post. Both the Img link and the Url link are generated under the image on photobucket.com by that site automatically. Here's a couple of examples:

If I post the following link, you only see the link in the post, clicking on it will allow you to download the linked image from photobucket.com:

http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/i1010.gif

If I post the IMG link (as below), then I will have the actual image inserted into the post, as long as I don't break the link by moving the image file on photobucket.com. If you do, you have to update the links to that file or you only see a placeholder, no image any more.

xhttp://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/i1010.gif

gives you without the "x" at the beginning:

http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/i1010.gif

Brian R.
02-03-2007, 04:18 PM
'96 - '98 Tacoma Extended EVAP Warranties

Certain 1996 1997 1998 Toyota's are eligible for extended warrantly/free repairs

The evaporative emission control system warranty will be extended from the current two years or 24,000 miles to 14 years or 150,000 miles. The extended warranty is estimated to cost Toyota about $3 million, and will reduce emissions of hydrocarbons by affected vehicles by an estimated 30 tons, in addition to the 1,200-ton reduction of hydrocarbons achieved by the supplement environmental project.

Owners who have not received a notice within 12 months are encouraged to contact their local Toyota dealer. Owners of affected vehicles who suspect a problem with their evaporative emission control system (including the smell of gasoline vapors) should contact an authorized Toyota dealer for service under the extended evaporative system warranty. Toyota will not cover the cost of repairs or diagnosis for systems other than the evaporative emission system or for repairs performed by parties other than authorized Toyota repair facilities.

See the following list for affected vehicles:

http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/EPA1.jpg

http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b8/rogersb/EPA2.jpg

Brian R.
02-11-2007, 04:28 PM
HARD STARTING

Q: My vehicle (100k miles) is acting up when I try to start it on cold mornings (-10,-15 deg C) Canadian weather.

The starter turns 2-3 times then it stops while all the lights in the dash are on. Usually when I try the second or sometimes the third time, the engine eventually starts. Some mornings the starter does not make any noises at all when I try it the first time, but after I try the second time it turns rather slowly and eventually the truck starts up.
I had the same problem about three weeks ago and I purchased a new battery. The truck started OK all this time but now I have the same problem again.

The truck starts OK during the day except when it is parked for 8 hours or more.
I never liked the way the truck starts since I purchased it 2 years ago. The starter needs to turn 4-5 times before the engine starts. All my previous vehicles started at one turn (4 cyl cars).

A: 1. How long a drive do you take? If the new battery solved your problem and now it's back, then it may be you are not driving the truck long enough to charge the battery. Along with this, you may have a big drain on your battery because of an accessory that is running, such as a large amplifier/stereo, etc. A high-current drain would make your alternator work much harder and longer to get the battery recharged. Starting the vehicle in the cold puts a large drain on the battery and the alternator can only put out a limited amount of current to replace that used in starting. Check your battery. If it is poorly charged, then it is likely that the alternator or alternator connections are your problem. It may also be that your alternator drive belt is loose and slipping so that you are not charging the battery as well as you could. Check the drive belt for the alternator and make sure it's tight as it should be.

2. In that respect, your alternator may be inadequate to recharge your battery. Consider having it's output checked. It may not be putting out enough juice to charge the battery quick enough to keep you going. Also, the cable from the alternator may be bad and limiting the current to charge the battery. If you find that the alternator is fine, but the battery is not well charged because you don't drive it but 10 min after you start it, you can replace it with a higher curent alternator to charge the battery faster. Again, make sure the cable from the alternator is in good shape.

3. Help your truck get started by making sure the plugs are fresh and you are using a light-weight synthetic motor oil. Dino oil gets thicker when it is older, but not synthetic. I would recommend you use 0W-20 Mobil1 or equivalent brand in Toronto in the winter.

4. A high-capacity battery is also necessary (as I'm sure you know from living up there). When you buy a battery, make sure you buy one with alot of cold-cranking amps. Maybe, your battery isn't up to the task of day-to-day starting because you didn't get one with adequate reserve capacity.

5. If the truck doesn't start right away under the best of circumstances, you may have a fuel delivery-related problem. Check your fuel filter, lines, and fuel pump to make sure you are getting fuel pressure quickly. There should be no delay in building up fuel pressure. A kink in the line, a dirty/clogged filter, or a bad fuel pump can delay starting until the pressure is adequate. The engine will not get the necessary rich mixture to start until the fuel pressure is up to spec. A rich mixture may not be available if the injectors are partially plugged. You can try cleaning them with some gas treatment or bring them to a shop that specializes in fuel-injector cleaning.

6. Check the current draw on the starter. If the starter is going bad, it will begin to draw alot more current to do the same work and drain the battery to a much greater extent than a good starter. This will make charging the battery take alot longer and wear out your battery sooner.

7. Under any circumstances, a high drain on the battery will cause a loss of electrolyte. Check the electrolyte level in your battery (all cells) and make sure they are up to the recommended level. Fill them as needed with distilled or deionized water.

It's one of those chicken and egg problems where the engine is not able to start quickly and thus drains the battery. The drained battery turns the engine over more slowly and makes it more difficult to start, which drains the battery further.

Brian R.
04-09-2007, 10:43 PM
Programming Factory Keyless Remotes

http://programyourremote.com/

Brian R.
05-06-2007, 01:05 AM
BREAKING-IN NEW ENGINES

An interesting article on breaking in 4-stroke engines from a very successful engine builder.

http://www.mototuneusa.com/break_in_secrets.htm

And one about breaking in Lycoming aircraft engines.

http://www.lycoming.com/support/tips-advice/key-reprints/pdfs/Key%20Operations.pdf

See the first page...

"A new, rebuilt or overhauled engine should receive the same start, warm-up and preflight checks as any other engine. There are some aircraft owners and pilots who would prefer to use low power settings for cruise during the break-in period. This is not recommended. A good break-in requires that the piston rings expand sufficiently to seat with the cylinder walls. This seating of the ring with the cylinder wall will only occur when pressures inside the cylinder are great enough to cause expansion of the piston rings. Pressures in the cylinder only become great enough for a good break-in when power settings above 65% are used.
Full power for takeoff and climb during the break-in period is not harmful; it is beneficial, although engine temperatures should be monitored closely to ensure that overheating does not occur. Cruise power settings above 65%, and preferably in the 70% to 75% of rated power range, should be used to achieve a good engine break-in.

Remember that if the new or rebuilt engine is normally aspirated (non-turbocharged), it will be necessary to cruise at lower altitudes to obtain the required cruise power levels. Density altitudes in excess of 8000 feet (5000 feet is recommended) will not allow the engine to develop sufficient cruise power for a good break-in.
For those who still think that running the engine hard during break-in falls into the category of cruel and unusual punishment, there is one more argument for high power settings during engine break-in. The use of low power settings does not expand the piston rings enough, and a film of oil is left on the cylinder walls. The high temperatures in the combustion chamber will oxidize this oil film so that it creates a condition commonly known as glazing of the cylinder walls. When this happens, the ring break-in process stops, and excessive oil consumption frequently occurs. The bad news is that extensive glazing can only be corrected by removing the cylinders and rehoning the walls. This is expensive, and it is an expense that can be avoided by proper break-in procedures.

To summarize, there are just a few items to remember about engine break-in:
1. If a preservative oil has been added by the aircraft manufacturer, drain it no later than the first 25 hours of operation;
2. Follow the engine manufacturer’s recommendation regarding the oil to be used for break-in and the period between changes;
3. Run the engine at high cruise power levels for best piston ring/cylinder wall mating;
4. Continue break-in operation for 50 hours or until oil consumption stabilizes. These simple procedures should eliminate the possibility of cylinder wall glazing and should prepare the engine for a long and satisfactory service life."

Brian R.
12-21-2008, 02:57 PM
Battery Ratings

According to Consumer Reports, car batteries cost and ratings are as follows (best ratings are at the top of each Group):

Group 65
DieHard Platinum 50065 $180 90
Duralast Gold 65-DLG $97 80
CR Best Buy Kirkland Signature 12866 $75 78
NAPA Performance Select 8465 $90 77
AutoCraft Titanium 65-2 $90 77
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-65N (North) $75 76
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-65S (South) $75 73
Interstate Mega-Tron Plus MTP-65 $114 72
DieHard Gold 33165 (South) $110 67
Duralast 65-DL $88 66
DieHard Gold 33065 (North) $110 62
Interstate Mega-Tron II MT-65 $100 60
DieHard 30065 (North) $90 54
DieHard 30365 (South) $90 50

Group 34/78 & 78
DieHard Platinum 50090 $180 91
Optima RedTop SC34U $150 76
Deka Intimidator 9A78DT $188 75
DieHard SUV, Truck and Van 39990 (South) $120 72
CR Best Buy NAPA Select 84 34/78 $82 67
CR Best Buy AutoCraft Titanium 34/78-4 $83 66
DieHard SUV, Truck and Van 39890 (North) $120 66
Orbital Exide Select ORB78DT-84 $172 66
Interstate Mega-Tron Plus MTP-78DT $113 63
Duralast Gold 34DT-DLG $95 63
EverStart Maxx-78N (North) $75 60
EverStart Maxx-78S (South) $75 59
Interstate Mega-Tron II MT-78DT $99 52

Group 24 /24F
Interstate Mega-Tron Plus MTP-24 $101 83
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-24N (North) $75 82
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-24S (South) $75 78
DieHard Gold 33123 (South) $110 76
Duralast Gold 24-DLG $89 75
AutoCraft Titanium 24-6 $85 72
DieHard Gold 33023 (North) $110 59
Interstate Mega-Tron II MT-24 $88 43

Group 35
Duralast Gold 35-DLG $93 79
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-35N (North) $75 79
DieHard Gold 33035 (North) $110 78
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-35S (South) $75 73
Interstate Mega-Tron Plus MTP-35 $90 68
DieHard Gold 33135 (South) $110 64

Group 75
Duralast Gold 75-DLG $89 75
Interstate Mega-Tron Plus MTP-75 $100 75
AutoCraft Titanium 75-3 $85 74
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-75N (North) $75 73
CR Best Buy EverStart Maxx-75S (South) $75 73
DieHard Gold 33075 (North) $110 72
DieHard Gold 33175 (South) $110 69
CR Best Buy Kirkland Signature 12869 $60 68
NAPA Select 84 8475 $90 68

Die Hard At Sears and Kmart only.
Duralast At AutoZone only.
Kirkland At Costco only.
NAPA At NAPA only.
Autocraft At Advance Auto Parts only.
EverStart At Wal-Mart only.

Brian R.
03-06-2009, 06:20 PM
Replace Accessory Belts on 5VZ-FE V6

To remove them, cut them off. To install and adjust tension on new belts work from engine forward, alternator, A/C, then P/S:

Alternator - Pivot bolt is on top, tensioner is on bottom middle of alternator facing driver's side wheel well. Tension lock nut is in front on bottom. Both pivot and lock nut must be loosened to move alternator with tensioner. Loosen tensioner/install belt/tighten tensioner.
Tighten:
Pivot bolt 38 ft-lbs
Lock nut 25 ft-lbs

A/C unit has idler pulley. Remove the skid plate to gain access from bottom. Loosen idler pulley lock nut (center of pulley) and move pulley in with adjusting bolt (driver's side bottom). Tighten idler pulley to 22 in-lbs/install drive belt/adjust belt tension.
Tighten:
Pulley lock nut 29 ft-lbs

Install skid plate

Power steering unit:
Same description as alternator except facing passenger side. You can see the P/S tensioning unit from the top. You have to turn the pully to get access to pivot bolt.
Tighten:
Pivot bolt 32 ft-lbs
Lock nut 32 ft-lbs

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